petak, 8. prosinca 2017.

Biochar



Agronomic values of biochar

The needs to develop more sustainable agriculture systems and improve weak rural economies necessitate major changes in agriculture management. Soil degradation, including decreased fertility and increased erosion, is a major concern in agriculture. Long term cultivation of soils could result in degradation, containing soil acidification, soil organic matter depletion, and severe soil erosion. Furthermore, the decrease in soil organic matter decreases the aggregate stability of soil, therefore, it is crucial to remediate the degradation soils by simple and sustainable methods.



The thermal process that produces biochar is called pyrolysis, pyro, meaning fire and lysis, meaning separation. During pyrolysis, the crucial trace elements found in plants (over 50 metals) become part of the carbon structure, thereby preventing them from being leached out while making them available to plants via root exudates and microbial symbiosis.
A range of organic chemicals are produced during pyrolysis. Some of these remain stuck to the pores and surfaces of the biochar and may have a role in stimulating a plant’s internal immune system, thereby increasing its resistance to pathogens. The effect on plant defense mechanisms was mainly observed when using low temperature biochars.This potential use is, however, only just now being developed and still requires a lot of research effort.



Soil mineral depletion is a major issue due mainly to soil erosion and nutrient leaching. The addition of biochar is a solution because biochar has been shown to improve soil fertility, to promote plant growth, to increase crop yield, and to reduce contaminations. We review here biochar potential to improve soil fertility. The main properties of biochar are the following: high surface area with many functional groups, high nutrient content, and slow-release fertilizer.



Biochar is much too valuable for it to be just added to soil without using it at least once for other beneficial purposes. Basic uses include: drinking water filtration, sanitation of human and kitchen wastes, and as a composting agent. All of these uses have been documented in many different pre-industrial cultures. In the modern world, the uses multiply: adsorber in functional clothing, insulation in the building industry, as carbon electrodes in capacitors for energy storage, food packaging, waste water treatment, air cleaning, silage agent or feed supplement. All those uses could be part of more complex cascades when, after extended up- and down cycling, biochar can be used in a farmer’s manure slurry pit or in a sewage treatment plant, before being composted and thus finally becoming a soil amendment. Biochar should only be worked into the soil at the end of such cascades, keeping in mind that some biochar uses, for cleaning up metal or chemical contamination, would render the biochar unsuitable for agricultural soils and need different recycling pathways.



At present some 40% of the biochar used in Croatia goes into animal farming.
Different to its application to Croatian fields, a farmer will notice its effects within a few days. Whether used in feeding, litter or in slurry treatment, a farmer will quickly notice less smell. Used as a feed supplement, the incidence of diarrhea rapidly decreases, feed intake is improved, allergies disappear, and the animals become calmer. In Germany, researchers conducted a controlled experiment in a dairy that was experiencing a number of common health problems: reduced performance, movement disorder, fertility disorders, inflammation of the urinary bladder, viscous salivas, and diarrhea. Animals were fed different combinations of charcoal, sauerkraut juice or humic acids over periods of 4 to 6 weeks. Experimenters found that oral application of charcoal (from 200 to 400 g/day), sauerkraut juice and humic acids influenced the antibody levels to C. botulinum, indicating reduced gastrointestinal neurotoxin burden. They found that when the feed supplements were ended, antibody levels increased, indicating that regular feeding of charcoal and other supplements had a tonic effect on cow health.



20% of the biochar used in Croatia goes into soil.
The application of biochar into soils has great potential for improving soils fertility and promoting plant growth. The choice of biochar managing various soils is flexible, because diverse biomass materials could be used as feedstocks of biochars and the feedstocks could be pyrolyzed at different temperatures. Moreover, biochar has huge surface area, well-developed pore structure, amounts of exchangeable cations and nutrient elements, and plenty of liming. Because of these properties, soil properties could be improved after biochar treatment. For instance, the huge surface area and well-developed pore structure may increase the water holding capacity and microbial abundance. The cation exchange capacity and availability of nutrients could be increased due to the amounts of exchangeable cations and nutrient elements. The increased pH of soils should be attributed to the plenty of liming contained in biochar. Therefore, improvements of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties promote the productivity of plant through increasing the amount of nutrient elements, enhancing availability of nutrient elements, reducing nutrient leaching, and mitigating gaseous nutrients losses.


These results of characterization analyses, column experiments and some field trials indicated that biochar could be designed or may have the potential to manage specific soil purposefully, through controlling the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Biochar can be a novel and feasible fertilizer directly or indirectly. This is not only because of the biochars fertility but also their environmental and economic benefits. Despite the interests of using biochars to manage soils is increasing, some studies are also reported the negative effects and a number of research gaps as well as uncertainties still exist as discussed above in this review. In order to clear these knowledge gaps, further relevant investigations are inevitable in the following research, especially long-term experiments.

References

Schmidt HP, Wilson K:
‘The 55 uses of biochar’
Yang Ding, Yunguo Liu:
‘Biochar to improve soil fertility’
Zeljko Serdar:
‘Agronomic values of biochar’
Aciego Pietry:
‘Relationships between soil pH and microbial properties in a UK arable soil’

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

utorak, 5. prosinca 2017.

Solitary bees / Solitarne pčele



Solitary bees / Solitarne pčele

Most people are familiar with honey bees and bumblebees, but look closely and there are smaller furry bees moving from flower to flower. Zeljko Serdar from Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) gives this concise guide to solitary bees…

There are around 20,000 described bee species worldwide. Most of these bees are known as solitary bees with only 250 bumblebee species, 9 honey bee species and a number of social stingless bees worldwide. In Croatia we have around 270 species of bee, just under 250 of which are solitary bees. These bees can be amazingly effective pollinators and as the name suggests tend not to live in colonies like bumblebees and honey bees.

Solitary bees in Croatia are highly diverse, therefore so are their nesting habits. The majority of species nest in the ground, excavating their own nest. The female builds the nest by herself. She chooses a suitable piece of ground in which to nest and uses her body to dig out a nesting chamber in the ground. She adds pollen to the chamber, which is often moistened with nectar, and lays an egg. She then seals off that section of the nest before moving onto the next chamber. Although most solitary bees nest solitarily, in suitable nest sites you often find aggregations of nests. There are also a number of species in Croatia that nest in the ground but create turrets over their nests, these are often very distinctive.



Da bi voćke imale plod, moraju biti oprašene, a to se kod različitih vrsta voćaka postiže na različite načine. Jezgričave vrste (jabuka i kruška) i neke koštičave vrste same su po sebi neplodne, pa moraju biti oprašene peludom neke druge sorte. Uz pčele, tome mogu pridonijeti i drugi kukci: bumbari, ose, leptiri ili kornjaši.
Najpoznatija je pčela medarica koja živi u košnici. U proljeće izlijeće kada su temperature zraka više od 12*C, aktivna je na 15*C, a najaktivnija na 20*C. Letačice donose nektar, hranu za maticu i podmladak. Opskrbljene rezervom hrane pri nižim temperaturama  od 12*C ne moraju van iz košnice. Njihova brojnost u voćnjaku može se regulirati brojem postavljenih košnica.
Bumbari su također dobri oprašivaći. Postoji veliki broj vrsta: livadski, šumski, planinsko-šumski, vrtni, voćni i drugi. Pojedine vrste bumbara žive u tlu, druge vrste žive iznad površine tla. Imaju krupno tijelo prekriveno dlakama. U proljeće se javljaju pri temperaturi od + 5*C, što je od osobite važnosti za oprašivanje ranih vrsta voćaka. Međutim, u proljeće u vrijeme cvatnje, bumbara je premalo i dok ojačaju svoja legla cvatnja je često već završena. Zato se preporuča postavljanje košnica za bumbare u blizini voćnjaka. Ali mi danas pišemo o jednoj vrsti pčele koja puno radi a malo se o njoj govori, solitarna pčela.



Solitarne pčele vrhunski su oprašivači voćaka. Nalaze se tu oko nas, ali ne primjećujemo ih. Miroljubljive su i ne ubadaju. Važnu ulogu u voćnjaku  imaju i pčele rezačice, koje gnijezda grade od dijelova lista. Svojom leglicom odrežu dio lista točno i precizno, pa ih zovu i pčelama krojačima. Solitarne pčele ne žive u košnicama, ne roje se, nemaju maticu, niti radilice, već sve rade same. Stoga ih zovemo samotarke, zidarice jer svoja gnijezda pregrađuju i zatvaraju blatom.
Zovemo ih i "najboljim pčelama voćnjaka" jer se pojavljuju rano u proljeće kada se mogu vidjeti na tek rascvjetanim pupovima voćaka. Brojnost tih pčela u prirodi ovisi i o broju pogodnih staništa za zasnivanje gnijezda. Solitarne pčele iz roda Osmia zasnivaju svoja gnijezda u šupljinama bambusa ili barske trstike Phragmites australis, kojom su se nekada pokrivali krovovi kuća, u šupljinama starog drveća, u pukotinama i otvorima drvenih, te zidovima neožbukanih kuća. Odrasle jedinke solitarne pčele pojavljuju se u proljeće, najčešće s pojavom prvih cvjetova vrbe i voćaka. U prirodi je izlijetanje odraslih jedinki postupno. Aktivne su tijekom cvatnje voćaka pri temperaturi od 8*C dok ostale vrste još spavaju. Mužjak u proljeće izlazi prvi, sitniji je od ženke, duljine od 7-10 mm, a ženka od 8-16 mm duljine. Mužjak ima dulja ticala od ženke. Glava i grudni dio crni su, a trbušni dio smeđe žut. Tijelo ovih pčela prekriveno je gustim dlakama, pogotovu s trbušne strane. S pomoću tih dlaka solitarna pčela sakuplja pelud po cijelom tijelu i prenosi ga s cvijeta na cvijet, a potom i u gnijezdo, gdje sprema hranu za svoje potomstvo. To se događa od ožujka do konca svibnja, pa i u lipnju. Tijekom 10-12 tjedana života ženke ostave svoje potomstvo i uginu. Kad ženka solitarne pčele iz roda Osmia nađe tunel pogodan za zasnivanje gnijezda, najprije ga očisti, a zatim na dnu tunela napravi pregradu od blata. U odabrani i pripremljeni tunel donosi pelud i nektar te na to položi jaje. Na određenom razmaku ponovno pregradi tunel blatom, te nastavi kompletirati sljedeće ćelije istim redosljedom: pelud, nektar, jaje, pregrada od blata. U pogodnom tunelu solitarna pčela izgradi najčešće 6-8 ćelija, a može izgraditi i do 15, ovisno o dužini tunela. Najpogodniji je tunel dužine 10 do 12 cm, a optimalan je promjer otvora od 8 mm do 10 mm. Na ulazu u tunel ova pčela ostavi 2 cm slobodnog prostora za ulijetanje i izlijetanje i na koncu otvor zatvori debelim čepom od blata. Iz jaja se, u ovisnosti o temperaturi, za nekoliko dana izlegne ličinka. Kad ličinka potroši hranu, prelazi u stadij predkukuljice, a potom izgrađuje svoj svileni kokon. Koncem kolovoza ili tijekom rujna u kokonu se iz stadija kukuljice preobrazi u odraslu pčelu, koja, ovisno o temperaturi, izlijeće van u proljeće idu godine.

Čovjek je narušio biološku ravnotežu, uništava biološku raznolikost, onečistio je okoliš, te utjecao na smanjenje broja ovih korisnih pčela u prirodi. Sve manji broj drvenih kuća, gdje su solitarne pčele nalazile svoje stanište, primjena novih građevinskih materijala uz već spomenuto ugrožavaju opstanak ovih vrsta. Posljednjih godina primjećeni su neki zdravstveni problemi. Jedan dio kokona iz bambusa ili trske se ne izleže i ostane u njoj. Ta cjevčica slijedeće godine ne bude prihvaćena kao stanište u koje će solitarne pčele odlagati jajašca, nego se moraju ukloniti iz prostora kolonije, uzgajališta. Zbog čega se dio kokona ne razvije u zdravog kukca još nam nije poznato. Ovi problemi smanjenja solitarnih pčela mogli bi izazvati veće ekološke i ekonomske poteškoće ukoliko im ne pomognemo. Ta mala i plemenita bića zaslužuju da čovjek i društvo prema njima bude daleko osjetljiviji nego što je danas. Postoji više razloga zašto trebamo čuvati solitarne pčele. Prije svega solitarna pčela leti pri nižim dnevnim temperaturama nego pčela medarica. Učinkovitost pri oprašivanju voćaka jedne ženke solitarne pčele može se usporediti sa učinkovitošću 120 letačica pčele medarice. Za oprašivanje 1 ha komercijalnog nasada jabuke potrebno je 500 ženki solitarne pčele ili 3 košnice pčela medarica s ukupno 60.000 radilica.
Osobita je njezina korist u oprašivanju kruške. Naime, cvijet kruške luči miris amin koji pčela medarica baš i ne voli. Solitarne pčele ne preferiraju određenu vrstu cvijeta, bitno je da je voćka blizu, tako da su pogodnije za oprašivanje nasada kruške. Ne smijemo smetnuti s uma da solitarna pčela, leti uokrug 200 do 250 m od svog gnijezda, kućice. Stoga je za efikasno oprašivanje voćnjaka raspored kućica od velike važnosti. Kućice mogu biti od bambusa  barske trstike Phragmites australis, izbušenih drvenih blokova, siporeks blokova i šupljikave cigle.
U blizini voćnjaka dobro je postaviti natkrivena staništa od drveta, gdje treba postaviti bambus, barsku trstiku, zemlju, pijesak i vodu ili pak gotove kupljene kućice.
Solitarne pčele nisu u nikakvoj konkurenciji sa pčelom medaricom ili pak bumbarima. Dapače, njihovim zajedničkim radom povećat će se broj plodova u voćnjacima. No, ne smijemo zaboraviti da je oprašivanje samo jedan od čimbenika koji utječu na urod naših voćaka.



Solitary bees conclusion:

Vary considerably in size, appearance and where they choose to nest. Roughly 70% are called mining bees and nest in underground burrows. Bees that nest in houses are called cavity nesting bees.
Do not live in colonies, produce honey or have a queen.
Do not produce wax to construct the cells inside the nest instead different species use different materials to construct their cells and nests.
Drink nectar directly from the flower and spend most of their time collecting pollen which is mixed with a small amount of nectar as food for their young.
Are fantastic pollinators: a single red mason bee is equivalent to 120 worker honeybees in the pollination it provides.
Do not have pollen baskets for carrying pollen, meaning that each time they visit a flower they lose far more pollen than social bees, which makes them much better pollinators
Provide each larvae with everything it needs but they do not tend to the young as they grow and never get to see their offspring emerge.
Are non-aggressive and do not swarm.
Safe around children and pets.

Korištena literatura:
Hintermeier, H., Hintermeier, Margit (2002): Kinderzimmer für Mauerbiene und Lehmwespe, Kraut&rüben, 5/02: 34-35.
O'Toole, C. (2000): The Red Mason Bee, Osmia Publications, Oxford.
Ševar, Marija (1999): Pčele samotarke i Osmia cornuta
br. 24: 7-8. , potencijalni oprašivači voćaka, Bilten HZPSS, Osmia rufa
http://www. digilander.libero.it/ vierka/imaggini

Zeljko Serdar, Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

petak, 1. prosinca 2017.

The future of food and farming post 2020

The future of EU food and farming - Communication on the Common Agricultural Policy post-2020


Why is a new reform necessary?
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the oldest policies of the European Union (EU). It successfully fulfilled its original objectives of securing supply of good quality, safe and affordable food products while supporting European farmers. Since 1962, the CAP has undergone many reforms and its adaptability is what makes it still relevant. The world is moving fast and so are the challenges facing not only the farmers but our societies as a whole. Climate change, price volatility, political and economic uncertainty, growing importance of global trade: farmers need to learn every day how to operate in a changing environment and it is up to the legislators to accompany them throughout these changes and to provide legal clarity and simplicity in the medium and long term.
The European agricultural policy turned the EU into the agri-food superpower that it is now: the EU if the first agri-food exporter globally, has an unparalleled reputation for its culinary heritage and food products, and for the savoir-faire of its producers. But the EU cannot be complacent: a success can also hide many individual difficulties.
The CAP needs to lead the transition towards a more sustainable agriculture. The CAP needs to help foster the sector's resilience in times of crisis and support farmers' income and viability. The CAP needs to fully accommodate digital innovations that make the everyday jobs of farmers easier, reduce red tape and could favour the sector's much-needed generational renewal. The CAP needs to strengthen European rural areas, which are the core of our European traditions and family farm model.
The Communication published today provides orientations in terms of addressing these objectives and meeting the emerging challenges, with a less prescriptive approach and greater subsidiarity at Member State level, to bring the CAP closer to those who implement it on the ground.
How can the revised policy be discussed without knowing what the budget and the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) will be?
Money is a means to an end. The Communication discusses how to improve the CAP's value for money. Now is the time to reflect on our objectives and future architecture of the policy. This will steer the debate without prejudging the Commission proposal for the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), expected for May 2018.
Why does the Communication not contain more detail on some issues?
The Communication points towards the challenges and opportunities ahead, puts forward orientations and indicates further paths to be explored. More debate and work will be needed over the next months to advance on the directions outlined therein and to refine concepts. The same way that the Communication outlines a less prescriptive approach and more subsidiarity, the Commission wants to continue the debate on practicalities with a wide range of stakeholders and co-legislators.
What are the next steps?
Over the next months the discussion and work on the concrete objectives, architecture and design of the future policy will advance in parallel with the work on the next MFF. This will be done notably in form of an impact assessment exploring different options by making use of the elements gathered from stakeholders and citizens (e.g. the public consultation carried on in 2017, Re-Fit inputs, the Cork 2.0 conference "The CAP: Have your say” conference) and intensifying the collection and processing of evidence. Following the expected Commission proposal for the next MFF in May 2018, legislative proposals on the future CAP are expected before the summer of 2018.
How will the future CAP be simpler for farmers and administrations in Member States?
Who wants to measure their hedges because “Brussels said so”? Why would an Italian farmer face the same environmental requirements as a Finnish farmer though they farm in very different conditions?
The future CAP will have common objectives and a set of measures to achieve the said objectives. From this common set of measures, Member States, either at national or regional level, will be able to pick their preferred panel of options to achieve the goals set at EU level.
Moving from a one-size-fits-all to a tailor-made approach means that the EU requirements will be reduced to a strict minimum. The actual needs on the ground will be assessed and fed by Member States into a CAP strategic plan approved at EU level. We are aiming at establishing a pact of trust with our rural areas, with our farmers.
The strengthening of farm advisory services for farmers and the full implementation of geospatial aid applications will also of course further support the simplification of aid applications and the implementation of investment measures.
How will this new approach function in practice?
The Union should set the basic policy parameters based on the objectives of the CAP, fulfilling the  EU Treaty obligations but also the already agreed objectives and targets on for instance the environment, climate change (COP 21), and a number of sustainable development goals.
Each Member State should establish a "CAP strategic plan", which would cover interventions in both pillar I and pillar II. This plan will tailor CAP interventions to maximise their contribution to EU objectives taking better into account local conditions and needs, against such objectives and targets. At the same time, Member States would also have a greater say in designing the compliance and control framework applicable to beneficiaries (including controls and penalties).
These strategic plans would be prepared not in isolation but in the framework of a structured process and the Commission would assess and approve such plans. This would maximise the contribution of the CAP towards the EU priorities and objectives and the achievement of Member States' climate and energy targets. It would also enhance the EU added value and preserve a functioning agricultural internal market.
While Member States should bear greater responsibility and be more accountable as to how they meet the objectives and achieve agreed targets, the new approach will continue to ensure a level playing field, preserving the common nature and the two pillars of the policy.
Is it the first step to renationalise the CAP?
This EU added-value has never been questioned and the CAP remains one of the flagship EU policies. Acknowledging that one size does not fit all is pragmatic. What are the local realities? What are the farmers' concrete circumstances? This is about acknowledging the varied agriculture, agronomic production potential, climatic, environmental and socio-economic conditions across the EU. It is about embracing our diversity instead of trying to impose one single model.
The input gathered by the EU-wide online public consultation from February until May 2017 was strongly supportive of the added-value of managing agricultural policy at European level since this ensures a level playing field within the single market. Only with a common European approach can agriculture respond more effectively to the shared challenges such as environmental protection and climate action. The need to maintain economic, social and territorial cohesion across the EU as well as the need for a common framework of sharing best practices was also frequently mentioned.  
While the specific details of the implementation of the measures will be done at national/regional level, the EU will guarantee a well-defined regulatory and budgetary framework in order to ensure that our common objectives are met through common instruments, in line with the EU Treaties and to fulfil the EU's international commitments on climate and sustainable development.
Why is the CAP relevant for the environment?
Agriculture covers almost half the land surface area of the EU, and on that territory it works in a very close relationship with the environment. On the one hand, it depends on various natural resources - i.e. soil, water, air and biodiversity - and is heavily influenced by the climate. On the other hand, agriculture shapes the environment in which it operates - not only through its use of natural resources but also by creatingand maintaining landscapes that embody our European diversity and provide essential wildlife habitats.
The CAP has an essential role in making farming's relationship with the environment and climate as mutually beneficial as possible. It also offers support in some cases to rural-based non-agricultural businesses which can influence the environment - e.g. in the forestry sector and other parts of the bio-economy.
The future CAP needs to promote and support climate-smart farming, it needs to place sustainability at the core of its priorities and actions.
How will the future CAP support farmers in protecting the environment?
As a foundation, farmers receiving income support from the CAP will have to apply various environment- and climate-friendly practices. Member States will determine the detail of these - in line with the need to meet EU-level objectives but also taking into account national, regional and local circumstances. The system will draw on strengths currently observed in the CAP but will involve fewer and less complex rules in EU legislation.
Eco-friendly action which goes beyond this foundational level of good practice will be supported through schemes which are voluntary for farmers - at a relatively basic level, and above that more advanced schemes. Once again, Member States will be responsible for designing the schemes, in such a way as to meet EU objectives translated into national, regional and local terms.
The CAP will also place strong emphasis on unlocking the potential of research, innovation, training and the use of advice to improve care for the environment and climate, including through greater resource efficiency.
If you entrust environmental commitments to Member States, how can you ensure a level playing field among farmers? Will we end up with 28 different systems?
Today's Communication marks a significant step change in the implementation of the CAP. Respecting the commitment to subsidiarity and less complexity, the Commission's scrutiny of national/regional plans will ensure that choices made are not manifestly mistaken or inadequate to meet the performance objectives and the basic EU requirements. The Commission would assess and approve the national/regional strategic plans with a view to maximising the contribution of the CAP towards the EU priorities and objectives and the achievement of Member States' climate and energy targets. This is important to ensure the maintenance of a common approach to the delivery of environment and climate objectives across Member States. Increased ambition is the only viable policy option in this regard.
The Commission will also maintain its key roles as guardian of the Treaties and as the institution ultimately responsible for the management of the EU budget and, as part of the process of scrutinising national/regional plans, the Commission will look carefully at how to avoid over-regulation.
Are the two pillars (direct payments/market measures and rural development) remaining in place?
The two pillars are two complementary facets of the CAP, which should remain in place. They structure the CAP around two essential broad types of intervention. The first pillar supports farmers on an annual basis in the form of direct payments and market measures, which are subject to compliance with basic rules and environmental objectives. The second pillar is a multiannual and flexible investment tool, more adapted to the local realities of each Member State, in particular to help support longer term projects.
How can we ensure that the future CAP will be fairer and that smaller and medium-sized farms will get the support they need?
In 2015, the first year of implementation of the last CAP reform, 20% of farmers received around 80% of direct payments. This raises understandable concerns of economic efficiency and social equity in the public debate.
In fact, this reflects the concentration of land and the nature of the support, which is largely area-based. Furthermore, more than half of its beneficiaries are very small farms and most of the payments (72% in 2015) go to medium-size professional (family) farms (from 5 to 250 ha) who manage most of the EU agricultural land (71%) hence are the main responsible for the delivery of public goods and environmental benefits.
Still, the Commission is committed to explore ways to further target direct payments more effectively and ensure a fair and better targeted support of farmers' income across the EU, as evoked in the Reflection paper on the future of EU finances. The following non-exhaustive list of possibilities should be further explored:
  • A compulsory capping of direct payments taking into account labour to avoid negative effects on jobs;
  • Degressive payments could be introduced as well, as a way of reducing the support for larger farms;
  • Enhanced focus on a redistributive payment in order to be able to provide support in a targeted manner e.g. to small-medium sized farms;
  • Ensure support to genuine farmers, focussing on those who are actively farming in order to earn a living.
Will farmers be treated equally across the EU?
At the same time as the CAP is ensuring that support is targeted to genuine farmers, focussing on those who are actively farming in order to earn their living, it also needs to play its role in following the principles of "Equality between its Members, big or small, East or West, North or South", which were recalled by President Juncker in his State of the Union address of 2017.
In this sense, it should reduce differences between Member States in CAP support. Even if the wide diversity of relative costs of labour and land as well as the different agronomic potentials across the EU should be acknowledged, all EU farmers face similar challenges with regard to market volatility, the environment and the climate.
What is the role of the CAP to promote rural prosperity?
The CAP is not only acting on the farming sector, but helps boosting local rural economies and enhancing rural prosperity. Rural development funds can for example support the setting up of an artisan's business. New jobs' opportunities and increase of growth potential can appear in rural areas through support of new rural value chains such as clean energy, the emerging bio-economy, the circular economy and ecotourism, investments in infrastructure, natural and human capital, including vocational training, programmes to develop new skills, quality education and connectivity. “Smart villages”, as an emerging concept, will help communities address issues of inadequate infrastructures and employment opportunities.
How can the Commission encourage the setting-up of young farmers and generation renewal in the sector?
Generational renewal should become a priority in a new policy framework, but Member States are in the best position to stimulate generational renewal using their powers on land regulation, taxation, inheritance law or territorial planning. The CAP should give flexibility to Member States to develop tailor made schemes that reflect the specific needs of their young farmers.
The CAP strategic plans could include support for skills development, knowledge, innovation, business development and investment support. The CAP should also help mitigate this risk in the first years after launching a farming business by providing an EU-wide system of support to the first installation. Access to financial instruments to support farm investments and working capital should be facilitated and better adapted to the investment needs and higher risk profiles of new entrants. Support to the new generation of farmers could be combined with the appropriate incentives to facilitate the exit of the older generation and the transfer of knowledge among generations as well as to increase land mobility and facilitate succession planning.
Why does the CAP need to support innovation? What is the rationale?
Agriculture and our rural areas face a number of challenges for which new solutions need to be found. We need better advice and more innovation. Public involvement in research and innovation is necessary to bridge the gap between rural areas in demand of digital innovations and better connectivity and providers of new technologies.
For example, sensors could detect and prevent poor health in animals early on and reduce the need for treatment. Real-time access to information about sunlight intensity, soil moisture, markets, herd management and more provides for better and faster decisions by farmers.
It makes sense to cooperate on research an innovation at EU level. By learning from each other in different parts of the EU we will develop better knowledge and will adopt innovation faster.
When facing volatility and market crisis, what kind of support can the farmers expect from the future CAP?
Be it sanitary or phytosanitary crises, climate change-related events or market volatility, farmers face high risks and pressure on incomes. The Commission has always and will always stand by farmers, as evidenced by the two latest solidarity packages each worth €500 million, but the higher frequency of risks calls more a more systematic approach.
The farming sector needs an adequate framework for risk management, which combines EU-level support with Member States' national tools and private sector instruments.
For example, the possibility to set up a sector-specific income stabilisation tool, with lower loss thresholds to trigger compensation, is expected to make it more attractive for both farmers and administrations. At the same time, a careful assessment needs to be carried out as to whether new tools or types of support should be introduced. In this context, cooperation among farmers and along the food chain should be fostered, including mutualisation and integrated services, for risk sharing purposes.
What will the EU-level platform on risk management entail?
The limited awareness of farmers and other stakeholders of the available tools and their relative lack of experience in implementing them has been one of the main barriers to the uptake of risk management instruments in the last few years.
The EU-level platform on risk management will be a platform for all actors involved, from farmers and public authorities to research institutes and private sector players (ex. insurance companies) to share knowledge and exchange best practices.
The Commission will be involved, as appropriate, as a facilitator and will develop the platform on a dedicated website.
Under the platform, expert groups, working panels, seminars and events will be organised around specific risk management topics, e.g. loss calculation using index-based systems. Moreover, the platform will offer the possibility to gather together private or public initiatives on risk management at local level, and relevant work in other policy fields, e.g. climate change adaptation, agro-meteorology, etc.
Why should the CAP stimulate investments and how can financial instruments support farmers?
A flexible CAP investment tool is essential to support competitiveness, innovation, climate change adaptation and mitigation and ultimately the sustainability of agriculture and rural areas.Modernising a farm, setting up new technologies, renovating irrigation systems are all actions that require a lot of frontload money and are substantial financial efforts that farmers cannot be expected to do all on their own. The public funds available for grants are not sufficient to address the growing investment needs of the sector. Rough estimations show that the market gap for financing agriculture is between €1.6 and €4.1 billion for short-term loans, and between €5.5 and €14.8 billion for long-term loans.
Financial instruments, such as loans, guarantees and equity funds, can ease access to finance for those farmers (e.g. small holders, new entrants, etc.) or agri-food producers, who find it difficult to obtain the necessary funds to either enter the business or develop it. By bringing together EU and private funding, they shall have a multiplier effect, i.e. increased investment volumes (leverage).
MEMO/17/4842
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources(CCRES)

nedjelja, 19. studenoga 2017.

No-till farm technique



No-till is a technique and tool to achieve the farmer’s objectives of reducing tillage and building soil health. It is also a whole farm system. And these techniques and tools can work equally well on all farms. The term basically describes ways to grow crops each year without disturbing the soil through tillage or plowing. A true no-till system avoids disturbing the soil with tools like chisel plows, field cultivators, disks, and plows. No-till can help your farm in a number of different ways but it is imperative that the system be implemented in a way that encourages success.

Here are just a few of the key concepts to think about:

• No-till depends on the cover crops to provide the nutrition needs of the cash crop. Of course, the nutrients from the cover crops are not available immediately. They are partially available the first year and partially available in successive years.  If your soil is low in organic matter, or if you have not farmed organically before, it may take a while to build the soil.  Think of it as money in the bank. You’re investing in your soil, and as time progresses you will be able to cash in on the dividends or interest from your account.

• Kill is achieved with a roller-crimper rather than synthetic herbicides. It works by rolling the cover crop plants in one direction, crushing them and crimping their stems. The roller-crimper can be front-mounted on a tractor, freeing up the rear of the tractor for a no-till planter, drill or transplanter to plant directly into the rolled cover crop. While other tools, such as a stalk chopper, rolling harrows, and mowers have been used for this purpose, the roller-crimper has several advantages over other tools.

• The rolled cover crop acts as a mulch, preventing annual weeds from growing through the entire season. To achieve adequate weed control, the cover crop should be planted at a high rate and produce approximately 3 to 4 tons to the acre of dry matter. For this reason, cover crops that yield a high amount of biomass work best for the no-till system. It’s also important to select cover crops with a carbon to nitrogen ratio higher than 20:1.  The higher the ratio, the more carbon, and the more slowly the crop will break down.  This will provide consistent weed management through the season.



Here are some suggestions about how to get started—without planting a single seed. The following ideas will help you become a successful no-till farmer, while managing the risks of adjusting to a new system.

Reading and learning
Find out as much as you can about which cover crops do well in your area. This might include talking to other no-till farmers, taking advantage of resources available at your local Extension office, and following up by consulting reference guides.

Assess your farm
Look at your soil types, the crops you intend to plant, the equipment and resources you have and the time you have to explore new planting systems. Like any changes on your farm, knowledge is power and understanding how new cover crop management tools will fit into your operation will be critical to your success.

Source local seed
Locally adapted cover crop seed will give you an edge, providing a crop that’s already adapted to your area.  It will be less likely to winter kill and may perform better on your farm. Since it may take some time to track down a local source, you should begin early.  This is especially true for organic seed since quantities may be limited.

Test plot
Perhaps the biggest source of risk comes from transitioning to a new management system and a completely new technology. During the first couple of years, the learning curve may be fairly steep.  It’s a good idea to start with a small, experimental area or test plot on your farm.


Cover crops are an essential part of any organic system but are especially crucial to the success of no-till in an organic operation and provide a multitude of benefits:

Increase soil organic matter
No-till is an intensive system which requires at least 3 to 4 tons of dry matter per acre to be effective. Cover crops are grown to their full potential, instead of being tilled in at an earlier growth stage. This means that, in general, the organic matter will be higher in carbon and lower in nitrogen making for long-lasting benefits as mulch for weed management.

Provide year-round cover for the soil
Covering the soil increases infiltration, reduces evaporation, stabilizes soil temperatures, provides habitat for soil life, and reduces soil crusting.

Decrease erosion
The roots of the cover crop stabilize soil and reduce runoff, while the above-ground portion of the plants protects the soil against the destructive force of raindrops. In an organic no-till system, actively growing cover crops (or, the rolled and killed cover crops) are in place during key times when erosion can occur, including spring melt, winter thaws, and summer storms.

Capture, hold and stabilize nutrients
Many cover crops (also called “catch crops”) are excellent scavengers of nitrogen and other nutrients. Rye, in particular, can scavenge 25%-100% of residual nitrogen left behind from the previous crop. As covers are rolled down and begin to decompose, this nitrogen is slowly released for use by the subsequent cash crops. Buckwheat is especially good at capturing phosphorus and releasing it for use by cash crops. Cover crop roots can also forage deeper in the soil, bringing calcium and potassium up from untapped soil layers. Unlike chemical fertilizers, organic amendments are more likely to provide a slow release of nutrients.

Increase biological activity
No-till increases diversity on the farm by providing year-round habitat and minimizing soil disturbance. Cover crops provide roots which nourish microorganisms and stabilize organic matter. Aboveground, beneficial insects find both habitat and nectar sources which may lessen the severity of pest insect problems.

Reduce field operations
In organic no-till, the yearly field operations can be as few as two: one pass to roll the cover crop and plant, and another to harvest the crop. Additional field operations may be used at other points in the rotation to establish the cover crops; however, these crops generally don’t require any cultivation to manage weeds.

Save energy
According to some estimates, up to 80% of the energy used in the production of corn is conserved by converting to organic no-till. While the production system may require approved organic fertilizers, energy savings are realized through the elimination of conventional nitrogen fertilizer.

Provide non-chemical weed management
For organic farmers, weed management is ranked as the number one challenge in most surveys. No-till can help by breaking weed cycles and by providing cover through much of the growing season.



If no-till trend caught on, it could have a few big climate benefits. It would lock more carbon in the soil and curtail fossil-fuel use in farm operations. The UNEP estimates that no-tillage operations in the United States have helped avoid 241 million metric tons of carbon-dioxide since the 1970s. That's equivalent to the annual emissions of about 50 million cars.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

srijeda, 8. studenoga 2017.

Silvopasture systems



Silvopasture in Croatia

Silvopasture is the intentional combination of trees, forage plants and livestock together as an integrated, intensively-managed system. Silvopasture can provide profitable opportunities for softwood or hardwood timber growers, forest landowners, and livestock producers.
Farmers in Croatia will have the opportunity to see first hand a project which seeks to demonstrate the feasibility and profitability of combining trees, forage crops and livestock.
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) at CCRES Research facility in
Lika-Senj County is managed by Zeljko Serdar. Additional funding over three years will be provided by the Agriculture Program of the CCRES.

Through new plantings and thinning of existing woodlands, CCRES will show three stages in the development of a silvopastoral system. Starting last year, 2016, trees were planted o­n an existing mature pasture. Tube shelters protect the trees from animal damage and improve growing conditions. In this silvopastoral system, pasture crops will provide short term income while tree crops of different rotation lengths will yield medium and long term returns. Nitrogen-fixing forage species, pasture fertilization and animal manure all help improve the soil and tree nutrition. Grazing controls competing brushy species and reduces fire hazard. Trees create a sheltered microclimate to protect animals from heat and cold. Shelter also improves forage quality and lengthens its growing season.

One visible effect of including trees in pastures is the shady haven which they provide for livestock o­n hot summer days. The benefits of providing protection from the hot rays of the summer sun are obvious. It easily follows that animals, which are unable to shelter from the direct sun during the heat of the day, will have to expend energy to deal with their discomfort and/or reduce their feeding activity. Their productivity should decline in proportion to the time spent under these unfavorable conditions. Increased livestock production during hot weather is promoted by CCRES as o­ne of the benefits of having trees. However, there is very little published research available to either verify or disprove this widely held belief.
The prunings of some trees can also be used as fodder, e.g. poplar. The result is better livestock growth. Birds can use conifer trees as perches. From the tops of tree rows, they can easily survey the pasture alleys for insects, worms, and other food items.
Careful observation of animals behavior is necessary to detect and correct potential problems with browsing or rubbing of trees.

In summary, our experience is that silvopastures planted in rows are far superior for livestock production than are either grid or cluster plantings. Trees planted in rows with wide open spaces for pasture production between them, support high forage production and facilitate agricultural operations and animal herding. The large amount of edge created and maintained long into the timber rotation tends to maintain high biodiversity
Electric fencing or individual tree guards may be necessary to protect trees if animals are introduced when they are still small. Fencing is also used in rotational grazing methods to better control forage consumption.

Throughout the duration of the CCRES project at CCRES Research facility, Zeljko Serdar and others will monitor tree growth, crop and animal yields, fuel use and soil fertility. The practical results of the project will be shared with other farmers, both through o­n-site field days and educational displays at other meetings.


Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

subota, 28. listopada 2017.

What You'll Study or Why Study Renewable Energy



93% of Renewable Energy students in graduate level employment or further study within six months of graduating.
  • Energy efficiency (buildings, industry, transportation)
  • Renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, tidal)
  • Design for environment and resource efficiency
  • Large-scale energy and environmental systems
  • Clean energy for the developing world
  • Advanced thermodynamics and energy materials
If you’d like to be part of change, here are the 10 best academic institutions to pursue a degree in renewable or sustainable energy systems.

1. Oregon Institute of Technology

In 2005, the Oregon Institute of Technology rolled out North America’s first four-year undergraduate degree program in renewable energy. Today, the Bachelor of Science in Renewable Energy Engineering program continues to prepare graduates to develop, manage, and implement sustainable energy technologies.
The program provides a foundation in math, physics, and chemistry. Core courses include instruction in energy management, wind power, photovoltaics, and fuel cells. The Institute added a Master of Science in Renewable Energy Engineering in 2012.

2. University of California Berkeley

Berkeley has long been a leader in research that addresses global issues and concerns. Its full-time MBA program in energy and clean technology was created to help individuals in the business and public policy sectors address energy problems. The program explores energy issues from every angle, including engineering, environmental, and fundamental science perspectives.
The university’s Renewable Energy Speaker Series invites leaders in a variety of sustainable and alternative energy sectors to share their insights with current students. Another class partners students with other graduate students from law, engineering, science, and policy programs to address the challenges of bringing new energy technology to the global marketplace.

3. University of Texas at Austin

The engineering program at UT Austin offers an extensive Energy Systems and Renewable Energy Technical Core for bachelor-level engineering students. The program aims to prepare graduates for careers in power systems and generation, grid operation, and renewable energy sources.
Students in this four-year program study both traditional and renewable energy resources and explore the function and design of electrical machines. Courses delve into topics such as nuclear power systems, solar conversion devices, and the development of solar-powered vehicles.

4. University of Michigan

The University of Michigan’s Energy Institute offers master degrees in energy systems engineering and in sustainable systems. The Energy Systems Engineering program is the first in the country to focus on developing leaders who are prepared to dynamically respond to changes in environmental and energy needs across the globe.
The Sustainable Systems program is a dual degree that prepares graduates with strong foundations in both engineering and sustainability. The program includes courses on ecological sustainability, infrastructure, and how to communicate energy solutions to policy makers. Graduates will be able to engineer energy systems that are sustainable economically, environmentally, and socially.

5. Stanford

Through its Center for Professional Development, Stanford offers graduate and professional certificate programs in renewable energy. These energy technologies certificates are designed for working professionals who want to expand their knowledge or broaden their career options. Certificates take between one and two years to complete and are offered online to better meet the needs of students who are already working full-time in their field.
Students can get either a graduate certificate in energy engineering and technologies or a professional certificate in energy innovation and emerging technologies. Courses explore everything from cellulosic biofuels and solar cells to electrochemical energy conversion and entrepreneurship in engineering and science-based industries.

6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

It’s no surprise that innovative tech leader MIT has an energy studies minor that provides students with a combination of theory and hands-on experience. MIT views energy as a subject that permeates across all disciplines — so the university integrates undergraduate energy education across all schools, departments, and programs.
MIT also offers undergraduates the chance to participate firsthand in energy research related to a variety of energy and environmental challenges. Research opportunities are held over the summer and involve energy sources such as wind, solar, nuclear, and geothermal.

7. North Carolina State University

The North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center started in 1988 with a focus on solar energy. Today, the center offers an award-winning Renewable Energy Technologies Diploma Series through part of NC State’s continuing education division. Since its inception, the center has received both state and national recognition, including the U.S. Department of Energy Million Solar Roofs Best Progress Award for the Southeast Region.
Courses focus on practical application and help students obtain professional certifications for photovoltaics and solar heating. Technical professionals can fulfill requirements for certification through three 40-hour courses. The program also offers options for contractors, architects, and engineers to complete required continuing education credits for their professional licenses.

8. San Juan College

San Juan College in Farmington, N.M., has been offering solar training for more than 13 years and has one of the longest-standing renewable energy degree programs in the country. Students can pursue either an Associate of Applied Science degree or a certificate with a concentration in photovoltaic and solar thermal systems.
As part of the School of Energy, the Renewable Energy program emphasizes the National Electric Code as well as the design and application of solar energy systems. Courses also take an in-depth look at energy usage and conservation as well as building energy analysis.

9. Ecotech Institute

The first and only career college focused solely on education for careers in renewable energy technology, Ecotech offers a variety of bachelor and associate-level degrees for people who want a career in sustainable energy. Degrees range from a bachelors in business administration with an emphasis on sustainability to an associate degree in renewable energy. There are also options to focus on residential energy management or specific forms of clean energy like wind or solar.
Students in the Renewable Energy program can customize their degree to the specialization of their choice. Specialties include an emphasis on wind, solar, electrical engineering, and waste management.

10. University of Massachusetts Lowell

Whether you’re interested in minoring in sustainable energy or are ready to tackle a Ph.D., UMass Lowell has a renewable energy program to meet your needs. As a national research university, UMass is on the cutting edge of energy research and development.
From its energy engineering minor to its various doctoral programs, UMass offers a well-rounded education that emphasizes service learning and research. Students are encouraged to participate in renewable energy programs and initiatives in their community through SLICE, Service Learning Integrated throughout the College of Engineering.
With demand for clean, renewable energy sources growing, there will be an increased need for skilled workers. There are plenty of options available for people looking to start a career in renewable energy or expand their current professional goals to include sustainable energy. Regardless of where you fall on the spectrum, these 10 colleges are the best place to start researching which program will meet your education needs and career goals.

Europe?

International agreements on CO2 diminution and European directives on the expansion of renewable energy generation ensure that the recent rapid growth in renewable energy installations will continue. Skills shortages in this sector are already being identified and the expected growth will only exacerbate the situation. Within the rapidly expanding European renewable energy industry, an urgent demand exists for more post-graduate trained staff, specialised in renewable energy technology.

The application process for Academic Year 2017/2018 is now closed, the 2018/2019 process will start on 15 January 2018.

The European Master is a course given by a consortium of Universities, each one with demonstrated experience in teaching and research excellence in a particular renewable energy technology. 
Core Providers
  • MINES-Paristech, France - French-taught 
  • Loughborough University, UK - English-taught 
  • University of Zaragoza, Spain - Spanish-taught 
  • Oldenburg University, Germany - English-taught 
  • Hanze University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands - English-taught
Specialisation Providers
  • National Technical University of Athens, Greece - Wind 
  • University of Northumbria, UK - Photovoltaics 
  • University of Zaragoza, Spain - RE Grid Integration 
  • University of Perpignan, France - Solar Thermal
  • Instituto Superior Tecnico, Portugal - Ocean Energy
  • Hanze University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands - Sustainable Fuel Systems for Mobility

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)