srijeda, 30. studenoga 2011.

News and Events by CCRES November 30, 2011




News and Events November 30, 2011


  • National Laboratory 'Flips Switch' on East Coast's Largest Solar Array
  • Town Known for First Thanksgiving is Grateful for Energy Savings

News and Events

Savings of 18.5% for Buildings that Meet 2010 Energy Standard: DOE

Photo of a large, horseshoe shaped, office building.

NREL's Research Support Facility, which was among the top green buildings in 2011, showcases higher efficiency strategies.
Credit: Dennis Schroeder, NREL

DOE announced on November 21 that its analysis shows buildings meeting a 2010 energy efficiency standard will use 18.5% less energy than structures using the previous (2007) standard. The latest version of Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, will save commercial building owners energy and money, according to DOE's analysis. It will also help them meet their sustainability goals and reduce carbon pollution. When DOE issues a final determination, states are expected to review the new code provisions and update their building code to meet or exceed the energy efficiency of the new standard within two years. Certification statements by the states are due October 18, 2013.

The DOE noted that the newer version of the standard contains 19 positive impacts on energy efficiency, including some changes resulting from public comments. Among the modifications are new requirements for daylighting controls under skylights and commissioning of daylighting controls; increased use of heat recovery; cool roofs in hot climates; skylights and daylighting in some building types; reduced ventilation energy; supply air temperature reset for non-peak conditions; efficiency requirements for data centers; lower lighting power densities; control of exterior lighting; and occupancy sensors for many specific applications.

DOE analyzed the energy codes published by the American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America to determine the potential for energy efficiency improvements in buildings that adhere to the code. For its findings, DOE simulated 16 representative building types in 15 U.S. climate locations. The standard covers a wide spectrum of the energy-related components and systems in buildings ranging from simple storage units to complex hospitals and laboratories. Structures also ranged from those smaller than single-family homes to the largest buildings in the world. See the DOE Progress Alert, the final determination regarding Standard 90.1PDF, the Building Energy Codes Program website, and the ASHRAE press release.

Huntsville Launches DOE-Supported Home Energy Upgrade Program

DOE on November 15 recognized the launch of the Huntsville WISE Gold Program, one of DOE's Better Buildings Neighborhood projects. The Huntsville WISE Gold Program in Alabama is one of more than 40 Better Buildings Neighborhood projects nationwide bringing the public and private sectors together to provide American homes and businesses with high-quality and accessible energy improvements that save money and create new jobs. The Huntsville program is part of the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance, which receives funding from DOE's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program and its State Energy Program.

The Huntsville WISE Gold Program provides a comprehensive suite of resources for homeowners looking to save money on their energy bills and make their homes more comfortable. The program educates homeowners on potential home energy savings and provides opportunities for them to receive energy assessments to identify which particular home upgrades would most effectively reduce their energy costs. Homeowners who implement efficiency measures that produce energy savings of 20% receive rebates of $350 for the initial energy assessment and up to $400 in additional rebates. See the DOE press release and the Better Buildings website.

DOE Highlights Commissioning of Army Fuel Cell System

DOE on November 17 recognized the commissioning of an innovative fuel cell system at the Army’s Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The fuel cell will supply the facility with emergency backup power. The four-stack system is one of the first of 18 fuel cells to be installed and operated at military bases across the country under an interagency partnership between DOE and the Department of Defense. Under the partnership, the departments test how the fuel cells perform in real-world operations, identify technical improvements manufacturers can make to enhance performance, and highlight the benefits of fuel cells for emergency backup power applications.

Compared with batteries, fuel cells are a reliable source of backup power because they offer long continuous run times and greater durability in harsh outdoor environments, which makes them ideal power sources for military applications. Unlike traditional electricity generators used for backup power, fuel cells use no petroleum and are quieter. And, they produce fewer pollutants and emissions than traditional generators do. Fuel cells also typically require less maintenance than either batteries or traditional generators do, and they can easily be monitored remotely to reduce maintenance time.

Aberdeen Proving Ground will also install three 5-killowatt (kW) fuel cells to provide critical back up power to its Range Control and Coordination Building, and an 8-kW fuel cell to provide backup power to the Snow Emergency building. Seven other military installations will install emergency fuel cell backup power under the memorandum of understanding signed by DOE and Defense in 2010. The Defense Department will manage the $6.6 million project, and DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect performance data for the first two years of this five-year demonstration, making the data available to fuel cell developers and commercial and government leaders interested in adopting this technology. See the DOE press release and DOE's Fuel Cells Technology Program website.

DOD Picks 2012 Energy Technology Installation Demos

The Department of Defense's (DOD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program on November 18 announced 27 new projects to demonstrate emerging energy technologies on military installations. The Installation Energy Test Bed initiative plays a key role in testing, evaluating, and scaling up innovative new energy technologies to improve DOD's energy security and reduce its facility energy costs. DOD has 300,000 buildings on its installations and spends nearly $4 billion per year on the energy needed to operate them. Demonstrations generate the cost and performance data needed to validate promising technologies, allowing them to be "fielded" and commercialized more rapidly.

This latest round of projects was competitively selected from the 575 proposals submitted by private firms, universities, and federal organizations. The fiscal year 2012 awards cover five areas: smart microgrids and energy storage; advanced component technologies to improve building energy efficiency; advanced building energy management and control technologies; tools and processes for design, assessment, and decision-making associated with energy use; and technologies for renewable energy generation on installations.

On one project, Soladigm Inc, along with partners including DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, will demonstrate dynamic windows to optimize solar heat gain and daylighting at the Marine Corps Air Station in Miramar, California. On another project, DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and partners will develop and apply a fleet management tool to schedule charging of plug-in electric vehicles at the Los Angeles Air Force Base in El Segundo, California. See the DOD press release and Installation Energy Test Bed Web page.

Energy Blog

National Laboratory 'Flips Switch' on East Coast's Largest Solar Array

On November 18, the DOE Brookhaven National Laboratory "flipped the switch" on the largest solar photovoltaic array in the eastern United States. The 164,312 solar panels hosted at the lab in New York state—one of the largest solar farms built on federal property—will produce enough energy to power up to 4,500 homes.

The 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm Project, a collaborative project between the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) and BP Solar International, Inc. (BP Solar), also boasts the smallest carbon footprint of any solar array with its amount of output. The use of a DOE site has helped attract investments from public and private sources, ensuring the economic success of the project and serving the nation's goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and foreign oil.

"The result is a significant source of clean energy for Long Island, as well as a positive economic impact for the local workforce and businesses," said Mike Petrucci, CEO of BP Solar, noting that a true "team effort" contributed to the successful development and construction of the project. LIPA chief operating officer Michael D. Hervey said that the project will help New York state meet its goal of 30% renewable resources by 2015, in addition to the "creation of new, high-quality energy jobs." See the Energy Blog post.

Town Known for First Thanksgiving is Grateful for Energy Savings

The town of Plymouth, Massachusetts, is synonymous with Thanksgiving. One year after the 1620 landing of the famous Mayflower, the town was the site for the very first harvest celebration between the Pilgrim settlers from England and the local members of the Wampanoag tribe.

As "America's Hometown," Plymouth has embarked on a path to energy efficiency to reduce energy waste in the coming years, while also exploring opportunities to expand use of renewable energy sources.

A 2009 energy audit identified the largest uses of municipal energy, as well as where the biggest savings could be realized. To help implement energy efficiency upgrades, the town received $514,000 in Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant funding from DOE as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

One of the most obvious projects on the town's list was to improve the energy efficiency of Memorial Hall, a 1,300 seat civic arena built in 1921 and used for concerts, plays, town assemblies, proms, graduations, and basketball games. See the Energy Blog post.

More info at: solarserdar@gmail.com

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

ponedjeljak, 28. studenoga 2011.

Solar pv CCRES

solar pv

how does pv work

‘Photovoltaic’ is a marriage of two words: ‘photo’, from Greek roots, meaning light, and ‘voltaic’, from ‘volt’, which is the unit used to measure electric potential at a given point.

Photovoltaic systems use cells to convert solar radiation into electricity. The cell consists of one or two layers of a semi-conducting material. When light shines on the cell it creates an electric field across the layers, causing electricity to flow. The greater the intensity of the light, the greater the flow of electricity is.

The most common semi conductor material used in photovoltaic cells is silicon, an element most commonly found in sand. There is no limitation to its availability as a raw material; silicon is the second most abundant material in the earth’s mass.

A photovoltaic system therefore does not need bright sunlight in order to operate. It can also generate electricity on cloudy days.

PV Technologies: Cells and Modules

PV cells are generally made either from crystalline silicon, sliced from ingots or castings, from grown ribbons or thin film, deposited in thin layers on a low-cost backing.

The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. A typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15% about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry.

Crystalline silicon technology:

Crystalline silicon cells are made from thin slices cut from a single crystal of silicon (monocrystalline) or from a block of silicon crystals (polycrystalline), their efficiency ranges between 11% and 19%. This is the most common technology representing about 90% of the market today.

Three main types of crystalline cells can be distinguished:

  • Monocrystalline (Mono c-Si)
  • Polycrystalline (or Multicrystalline) (multi c-Si)
  • Ribbon sheets (ribbon-sheet c-Si)

Thin Film technology:

Thin film modules are constructed by depositing extremely thin layers of photosensitive materials onto a low-cost backing such as glass, stainless steel or plastic.

Thin Film manufacturing processes result in lower production costs compared to the more material-intensive crystalline technology, a price advantage which is counterbalanced by lower efficiency rates (from 4% to 11%). However, this is an average value and all Thin Film technologies do not have the same efficiency.

Four types of thin film modules (depending on the active material used) are commercially available at the moment:

  • Amorphous silicon (a-Si)
  • Cadmium telluride (CdTe)
  • Copper Indium/gallium Diselenide/disulphide (CIS, CIGS)
  • Multi junction cells (a-Si/m-Si)

Other cell types:

There are several other types of photovoltaic technologies developed today starting to be commercialised or still at the research level, the main ones are:

  • Concentrated photovoltaic:
    Some solar cells are designed to operate with concentrated sunlight. These cells are built into concentrating collectors that use a lens to focus the sunlight onto the cells. The main idea is to use very little of the expensive semiconducting PV material while collecting as much sunlight as possible. Efficiencies are in the range of 20 to 30%.
  • Flexible cells:
    Based on a similar production process to thin film cells, when the active material is deposited in a thin plastic, the cell can be flexible. This opens the range of applications, especially for Building integration (roofs-tiles) and end-consumer applications.

PV Applications

The Photovoltaic technology can be used in several types of applications:

Grid-connected domestic systems

This is the most popular type of solar PV system for homes and businesses in developed areas. Connection to the local electricity network allows any excess power produced to feed the electricity grid and to sell it to the utility. Electricity is then imported from the network when there is no sun. An inverter is used to convert the direct current power produced by the system to alternative power for running normal electrical equipments.

Grid-Connected power plants

These systems, also grid-connected, produce a large quantity of photovoltaic electricity in a single point. The size of these plants range from several hundred kilowatts to several megawatts. Some of these applications are located on large industrial buildings such as airport terminals or railways stations. This type of large application makes use of already available space and compensates a part of the electricity produced by these energy-intensive consumers.

Off-grid systems for rural electrification

Where no mains electricity is available, the system is connected to a battery via a charge controller. An inverter can be used to provide AC power, enabling the use of normal electrical appliances. Typical off-grid applications are used to bring access to electricity to remote areas (mountain huts, developing countries). Rural electrification means either small solar home system covering basic electricity needs in a single household, or larger solar mini-grids, which provide enough power for several homes. More information is available on CCRES.

Off-grid industrial applications

Uses for solar electricity for remote applications are very frequent in the telecommunications field, especially to link remote rural areas to the rest of the country. Repeater stations for mobile telephones powered by PV or hybrid systems also have a large potential. Other applications include traffic signals, marine navigation aids, security phones, remote lighting, highway signs and waste water treatment plants. These applications are cost competitive today as they enable to bring power in areas far away from electric mains, avoiding the high cost of installing cabled networks.

Consumer goods

Photovoltaic cells are used in many daily electrical appliances, including watches, calculators, toys, battery chargers, professional sun roofs for automobiles. Other applications include power for services such as water sprinklers, road signs, lighting and phone boxes.

Environmental impact

Climate protection

The most important feature of solar PV systems is that there are no emissions of carbon dioxide - the main gas responsible for global climate change - during their operation. Although indirect emissions of CO2 occur at other stages of the lifecycle, these are significantly lower than the avoided emissions. PV does not involve any other polluting emissions or the type of environmental safety concerns associated with conventional generation technologies. There is no pollution in the form of exhaust fumes or noise.

Decommissioning a system is unproblematic. Although there are no CO2 emissions during operation, a small amount does result from the production stage. PV only emits 21,65 grams CO2/kWh, however, depending on the PV technology. The average emissions for thermal power in Europe, on the other hand, are 900g CO2/kWh. By substituting PV for thermal power, a saving of 835879 g/kWh is achieved.

The benefit to be obtained from carbon dioxide reductions in a country's energy mix is dependent on which other generation method, or energy use, solar power is replacing. Where off-grid systems replace diesel generators, they will achieve CO2 savings of about 1 kg per kilowatt-hour. Due to their tremendous inefficiency, the replacement of a kerosene lamp will lead to even larger savings, of up to 350 kg per year from a single 40 Wp module, equal to 25kg CO2/kWh. For consumer applications and remote industrial markets, on the other hand, it is very difficult to identify exact CO2 savings per kilowatt-hour.

Recycling of PV modules is possible and raw materials can be reused. As a result, the energy input associated with PV will be further reduced.

If governments adopt a wider use of PV in their national energy generation, solar power can therefore make a substantial contribution towards international commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and their contribution to climate change.

By 2030, according to the EPIA-Greenpeace Solar Generation Advanced Scenario, solar PV would have reduced annual global CO2 emissions by just over 1,6 billion tonnes. This reduction is equivalent to the output from 450 coal-fired power plants (average size 750 MW).

Cumulative CO2 savings from solar electricity generation between 2005 and 2030 will have reached a level of 9 billion tonnes.

Carbon dioxide is responsible for more than 50% of the man-made greenhouse effect, making it the most important contributor to climate change. It is produced mainly by the burning of fossil fuels. Natural gas is the most environmentally sound of the fossil fuels, because it produces roughly half as much carbon dioxide as coal, and less of other polluting gases. Nuclear power produces very little CO2, but has other major safety, security, proliferation and pollution problems associated with its operation and waste products.

Energy payback

A popular belief still persists that PV systems cannot "pay back" their energy investment within the expected lifetime of a solar generator - about 25 years. This is because the energy expended, especially during the production of solar cells, is seen to outweigh the energy eventually generated.

Data from recent studies shows, however, that present-day systems already have an energy payback time (EPBT) - the time taken for power generation to compensate for the energy used in production - of 1 to 3.5 years, well below their expected lifetime. With increased cell efficiency and a decrease in cell thickness, as well as optimized production procedures, it is anticipated that the EPBT for grid-connected PV will decrease further.

The figure hereafter shows energy payback times for different solar cell technologies (thin film, ribbon, multicrystalline and monocrystalline) at different locations (southern and northern Europe). The energy input into a PV system is made up of a number of elements, including the frame, module assembly, cell production, ingot and wafer production and the silicon feedstock. The energy payback time for thin film systems is already less than a year in southern Europe. PV systems with monocrystalline modules in northern Europe, on the other hand, will pay back their input energy within 3.5 years.

Figure - Energy payback times for range of PV systems (rooftop system, irrad. 1700 resp. 1000 kWh/m2/year)

10 good reasons to switch to solar photovoltaic electricity

Photovoltaic is emerging as a major power source due to its numerous environmental and economic benefits and proven reliability:

1

The fuel is free.
The sun is the only resource needed to power solar panels. And the sun will keep shining until the world's end. Also, most photovoltaic cells are made from silicon, and silicon is an abundant and non-toxic element (the second most abundant material in the earth's mass).

2

It produces no noise, harmful emissions or polluting gases.
The burning of natural resources for energy can create smoke, cause acid rain, pollute water and pollute the air. Carbon dioxide or CO2, a leading greenhouse gas, is also produced. Solar power uses only the power of the sun as its fuel. It creates no harmful by-product and contributes actively to reduce the global warming.

From : Externe project, 2003; Kim and Dale, 2005; Fthenakis and Kim, 2006; Fthenakis and Kim, 2007; Fthenakis and Alsema, 2006.

3

PV systems are very safe and highly reliable.
The estimated lifetime of a PV module is 30 years. Furthermore, the modules' performance is very high providing over 80% of the initial power after 25 years which makes photovoltaics a very reliable technology in the long term. In addition, very high quality standards are set at a European level which guarantees that consumers buy reliable products.

4

The energy pay-back time of a module is constantly decreasing.
This means that the time required for a PV module to produce as much energy as it needs to be manufactured is very short, it varies between 1,5 years to 3 years. This is between 6 to 18 times more energy than the energy needed to be manufactured (depending on the technology, the type of system and the location).

5

PV Modules can be recycled and therefore the materials used in the production process (silicon, glass, aluminium, etc.) can be reused.
Recycling is not only beneficial for the environment but also for helping to reduce the energy needed to produce those materials and therefore the cost of fabrication. More information is available on the following website: CCRES.

6

It requires low maintenance.
Solar modules are almost maintenance-free and offer an easy installation.

7

It brings electricity to remote rural areas.
Solar systems give an added value to rural areas (especially in developing countries where electricity is not available). House lighting, hospital refrigeration systems and water pumping are some of the many applications for off-grid systems. Telecommunication systems in remote areas are also well-known users of PV systems.

8

It can be aesthetically integrated in buildings (BIPV).
Systems can cover roofs and façades contributing to reduce the energy buildings consume. They don't produce noise and can be integrated in very aesthetic ways. .European building legislations have been and are being reviewed to make renewable energies as a required energy source in public and residential buildings. This fact is accelerating the development of ecobuildings and positive energy buildings (E+ Buildings) which opens up many opportunities for a better integration of PV systems in the built environment. More information is available on CCRES.

9

It creates thousands of jobs.
The PV sector, with an average annual growth of 40% during the past years is increasingly contributing to the creation of thousands of jobs in Europe and worldwide.

10

It contributes to improving the security of Europe's energy supply.
In order to cover 100% of the electricity demand in Europe, only the 0.7% of the total land of Europe would be needed to be covered by PV modules. Therefore Photovoltaics can play an important role in improving the security of Europe's energy supply.

More info about RES & EE on solarserdar@gmail.com

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

Geothermal CCRES



WHAT IS GEOTHERMAL?

Geothermal energy : from the earth, a renewable energy resource delivering heat and power 24 hours a day throughout the year, an energy resource nearly infinite and available all over the world.

Per definition, geothermal energy is the energy stored in form of heat below the earth’s surface. It has been used since antique times for heating, and for about 100 years also for electricity generation. Its potential is inexhaustible in human terms, comparable to that of the sun. Beside electric power generation, geothermal energy is today used for district heating, as well as for heating (and cooling) of individual buildings, including offices, shops, small residential houses, etc.

Geothermal-generated electricity was first produced at Larderello, Italy, in 1904. Iceland, Italy, Turkey, Portugal, Germany and France are the leading countries in Europe today.

The largest geothermal district heating systems within Europe can be found in the Paris and Munich area, with Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia and others showing a substantial number of interesting geothermal district heating systems. Sweden, Switzerland, Germany and Austria are the leading countries in terms of market for geothermal heat pumps in Europe.

Geothermal Electricity

Today, geothermal power plants exist on every continent, at any place were reservoirs of steam or hot water can be found. They produce, with conventional technology, 900 MWe of electric power in the EU, around the clock. The relevant resources are far from being fully developed, also in Europe. The concept of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (including the classical Hot-Dry-Rock-idea) is going to add a tremendous increase to the potential.


Deep and Direct uses

The earth is full of energy. And virtually any temperature level in the underground can be used directly, for instance with deep boreholes. Did you know, that through deep boreholes almost 4500 MWth yet are installed in Europe? 4500 MWth for a clean environment. However, here again is valid: Only a small fraction of the resources are currently used.



VezaShallow Geothermal

Virtually every temperature level in the underground can be used for geothermal energy, even if this means only ca. 3-15 °C, as usual in the shallow underground in European climate. In most cases a heat pump is required here, and cooling can be supplied as well as heating. This technology provides again about 9000 MWth of heating capacity.


CONTACT

email: solarserdar@gmail.com

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

nedjelja, 27. studenoga 2011.

Biomass CCRES



Biomass to bioenergy

Biomass refers to renewable energy coming from biological material such as trees, plants, manure, and sometimes waste. Using various transformation processes such as combustion, gasification, pyrolysis the biomass is either transformed into biofuels, bioheat or bioelectricity and used for energetic purposes.

In the Renewable energy directive (2009/28/EC) biomass is defined as follows: "Biomass means the biodegradable fraction of products, wastes and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetable and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste".

Biomass is the fourth largest energy source in the world after coal, oil and natural gas – and is the largest and most important renewable energy option at present and can be used to produce different forms of energy, thus providing all the energy services required by the society.

Wood is the oldest form of biomass known to mankind. For centuries wood was used for heating, cooking and industrial purposes. In the developing world wood is still used for the same reasons. In the 18th and 19th centuries, wood was gradually replaced by cheap fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which were easy to handle and had higher energy density. Nowadays there is a growing interest in bioenergy which can be used in an efficient way using modern technologies for the production of heat, electricity and transportation fuels. Biomass, used in a sustainable manner, is a regenerative source of energy.

Biomass originates from forest, agricultural and waste streams.

  1. Forest and wood-based industries produce wood which is the largest ressource of solid biomass. Biomass procurement logistics from forest to bioenergy plants are subject to major improvements. The sector covers a wide range of different biofuels with different characteristics – wood logs, bark, wood chips, sawdust and more recently pellets. Pellets, due to their high energy density and standardised characteristics, offer great opportunities for developing the bioenergy market worldwide.
  2. Agriculture can provide dedicated energy crops as well as by-products in the form of animal manure and straw. Available land can be used for growing conventional crops such as rape, wheat, maize etc. for energy purposes or for cultivating new types of crops such as poplar, willow, miscanthus and others.
  3. Biodegradable waste is the biomass that can cover several forms of waste such as organic fraction of municipal solid waste, wood waste, refuse-derived fuels, sewage sludge, etc.

Each biomass resource has different characteristics in terms of calorific value, moisture and ash content, etc. that requires appropriate conversion technologies for bioenergy production. These conversion routes use chemical, thermal and/or biological processes. Finally biomass/bioenergy can be classified according to its end use as follows:

Biomass for heat production

Heat production: Combustion of solid biomass of wood for heat production is the main bioenergy route in the world, with a constant drive for improved efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. Several systems can be considered, depending on the size. Small-scale heating systems for households typically use firewood or pellets. Medium-scale users typically burn wood chips in grate boilers while large-scale boilers are able to burn a larger variety of fuels, including wood waste and refuse-derived fuel. Heat can also be produced on a medium or large scale through cogeneration which provides heat for industrial processes in the form of steam and can supply district heat networks.

Biomass for electricity production

Electricity: Combustion followed by a water vapor cycle is the main technology for the time being but new technologies are emerging such as ORC-plants. Co-combustion of biomass and coal is also under implementation by electric utilities. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is mainly used on site for cogeneration applications. The solid and liquid residues from the process are often used as fertilisers on farm land.

More info: solarserdar@gmail.com

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

srijeda, 23. studenoga 2011.

News and Events by CCRES November 23, 2011




News and Events by CCRES November 23, 2011



News and Events

DOE, EPA Release the 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide

Photo of compact car.

The 2012 all-electric Mitsubishi i-MiEV was rated most economical with a 112 miles per gallon average, according to the 2012 Fuel Economy Guide.
Credit: Mitsubishi

DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the 2012 Fuel Economy Guide on November 16th. The guide provides information that can help consumers choose more efficient vehicles that save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While fuel-efficient vehicles come in a variety of fuel types, classes, and sizes, many new advanced technology vehicles debut on this year's annual list of top fuel economy performers. The 2012 all-electric Mitsubishi i-MiEV topped this list, after a conversion from gas-to-electric was factored in to give it a 112 miles per gallon (mpg) average. The Nissan Leaf electric vehicle, the Azure Dynamics Transit Connect Electric Van, the plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt, and last year's leader, the Toyota Prius hybrid, rounded out the top five spots.

Fuel economy leaders within each vehicle category—from two-seaters to large SUVs—include widely available products, such as conventional gasoline models and clean diesels. Some 2012 models will be voluntarily displaying a new fuel economy and environment label that provides consumers with more comprehensive fuel efficiency information, including five-year fuel costs or savings compared to the average vehicle, as well as new greenhouse gas and smog ratings. These labels are will be required in model year 2013.

The online rankings include the vehicles with the lowest fuel economy. Each vehicle listing in the guide provides an estimated annual fuel cost. The estimate is calculated based on the vehicle's mpg rating and national estimates for annual mileage and fuel prices. The online version of the guide allows consumers to input their local gasoline prices and typical driving habits to receive personalized fuel cost estimates. See the DOE press release, the complete guide, and 2012 fuel economy leaders.

DOE's $7 Million to Help Trim 'Soft' Costs of Solar Energy Systems

Photo of two workers with a solar panel on a roof.

DOE is committing $7 million via the SunShot Incubator Program to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations such as installation.
Credit: Craig Miller Productions

DOE announced on November 15 up to $7 million as part of the SunShot Initiative to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. The funds will support the development of tools and approaches that reduce non-hardware, or "soft" costs, such as costs related to installation, permitting, interconnection, and inspection. Soft expenses can amount to as much as half the cost of a residential system. This work is supported through the SunShot Incubator Program, and will make the process of buying, installing, and maintaining solar energy systems faster, easier, and less expensive.

The incubator previously focused on solving hardware challenges. This new round of funding applies to the soft costs of installing solar systems and acknowledges the vast potential for cost reductions in this area. The balance-of-system soft costs addressed by this funding opportunity include any non-hardware aspects of an installed solar energy system, such as labor, permitting and inspection, customer acquisition, financing, and contracting. Funding will be awarded in two tiers. Tier 1 includes awards up to $500,000 with a 20% cost share over 12 months to accelerate the development of innovative non-hardware concepts. DOE may issue approximately 3-5 awards in this category. Tier 2 includes awards up to $5 million with a 50% cost share over 18 months to transition innovative systems and solutions to the demonstration stage and eventually to full-scale deployment. DOE may issue approximately 1-3 awards in this category.

The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort to reduce the cost of solar energy by about 75% by the end of the decade. A primary objective of the SunShot Incubator Program is to launch new start-up businesses and new business units within existing commercial entities. Concept paper applications for soft-cost funding are due January 16, 2012. See the DOE press release, the funding opportunity announcement, an Energy Blog post, and the SunShot Initiative website.

Top U.S. Green Power Programs in DOE Spotlight

DOE recognized four organizations on November 16 for expanding the market for electricity produced from renewable energy during the 11th annual Green Power Leadership Awards. These organizations' "green power" programs provide consumers with opportunities to purchase clean energy from environmentally preferred sources, such as wind and solar energy.

Winners include San Francisco-based 3Degrees and Virginia's Washington Gas Energy Services, which were recognized as the Non-Utility Green Power Suppliers of the Year; Detroit Edison for Utility Green Power Program of the Year for developing its voluntary green power program; and The Clean Energy Collective, in Colorado, for Innovative Green Power Program of the Year. Organizations are evaluated on total annual renewable energy sales, number of customers served, market impact, resources and technologies used, and overall value provided to customer participants.

According to the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, about 860 utilities offer green power programs in the United States, and annual sales from utility green power programs have more than doubled since 2005. Annual green power market sales increased to more than 35 million megawatt-hours in 2010, and more than 1.8 million customers purchased green power in 2010 through a green power program, competitive marketer program, or renewable energy certificates marketer. See the DOE press release and the 2011 Green Power Leadership Awards on the Green Power Network, part of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy website.

ARPA-E Announces 2012 Energy Innovation Summit

DOE's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) will hold its third annual Energy Innovation Summit on February 27–29, 2012, at the Gaylord Convention Center near Washington, D.C. The summit is designed to unite key players from all sectors of the U.S. energy innovation community to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of clean energy technologies. The event is co-hosted by ARPA-E and the Clean Technology and Sustainable Industries Organization.

Energy Secretary Steven Chu and ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar will join Bill Gates, founder and chairperson of Microsoft Corporation; Susan Hockfield, president and professor of neuroscience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Lee Scott, former CEO of Wal-Mart; and other thought leaders as distinguished keynote speakers.

In addition to featuring an expanded showcase, the Innovation Summit will again this year include top U.S. businesses focused on developing energy technology. The summit connects top corporate businesses with clean energy researchers and entrepreneurs with the goal of building lasting partnerships for commercialization. Some of last year's corporate participants included Lockheed Martin, Dow, DuPont, Battelle, and Bosch. See the DOE progress alert, the summit website, and the ARPA-E website.

Energy Blog

Innovative Energy Storage Technologies Enabling More Renewable Power

Solar and wind power provide the means for America to strengthen its energy security, create jobs in growing markets, and improve the environment. Thanks to breakthroughs in energy storage systems, including the first grid-tied solar and storage facility, that potential is getting closer to reality. By combining energy storage systems with smart grid technology, utilities are able to automatically "smooth" the output of energy. This allows intermittent energy sources to be available even when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing.

Across the United States, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding is allowing 32 demonstration projects, including large-scale energy storage, smart meters, distribution and transmission system monitoring devices, and a range of other smart technologies, to explore the deployment of integrated smart grid systems on a broader scale.

Recently, three of these projects have been recognized for their progress in the development and implementation of energy storage systems. As the worldwide market for clean energy expands, projects like these are continuing the tradition of American leadership in developing next-generation technologies. See Energy Blog post.

Energy Matters: Industrial Energy Efficiency

On November 16th, Dr. Kathleen Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, discussed industrial energy efficiency on an Energy Matters video livechat.

Dr. Hogan answered questions, submitted by industry professionals and the interested public via email, Facebook and Twitter, on how commercial building efficiency, advanced manufacturing, and corporate partnerships can increase American competitiveness.

The manufacturing industry represents 12 million American jobs and 60% of U.S. exports. DOE programs like the American Manufacturing Partnership and the Better Buildings, Better Plants create jobs, help companies boost their competitiveness, and strengthen the nation’s economic position. See the Energy Blog post.

More info at: CCRES site.

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

Dok-Ing Automotiv

A Show-Stealing Croatian Upstart Makes Debut in Los Angeles

Mr. Majetic, with the Dok-Ing Automotiv XD, on Thursday.
Mr. Majetic, with the Dok-Ing Automotiv XD, on Thursday.

LOS ANGELES — If there were an award for Most Unique Car at the 2011 Los Angeles auto show, a judge would be hard pressed to explain a vote in favor of anything other than the XD electric vehicle from Dok-Ing Automotiv.

It’s not only that the XD is built in Croatia, a country that — at least for now — does not evoke River Rouge-like manufacturing plants. It’s not only the car’s carbon fiber, aluminum and Kevlar; its luxury appointments; its fully digital touch-screen instrument panel; its purported zero-to-62-m.p.h. acceleration of 4.2 seconds via four high-power motors; and its diminutive nine-foot body that seats three people — one in front and two on either side of the driver.

It’s all of these things, and the fact that the XD is the singular vision of one man, Vjekoslav Majetic.

Mr. Majetic, Dok-Ing’s chief executive, used a Croatian industrial designer, who worked much as a tailor would to produce a custom suit. “I don’t like this. Remove it. Move this over here, and so on,” said Mr. Majetic of the design process in an interview at Dok-Ing’s stand at the auto show. The designer duly responded to his boss’s vision of an ideal personal car.

“I will put myself in the middle because it’s the safest place in the car,” Mr. Majetic said, explaining why the steering column was not positioned toward the right or left, but down the middle. The two passengers stretch their legs past the driver on either side and enter the car through gullwing doors after the driver is seated.

“If you multiply Smart with the Rolls-Royce, you get the Dok-Ing XD,” said Zoran Segina, a Los Angeles-based automotive journalist from Zagreb, where the XD is built.

Mr. Segina explained how it came to be that Mr. Majetic, whose company builds heavy-duty remote-control vehicles used for clearing landmines, as well as robotic firefighting vehicles, decided to seek a vehicle to replace his BMW X5.

“The streets of Zagreb are narrow, parking is nearly nonexistent and gasoline costs about $10 a gallon,” Mr. Segina said. Not satisfied with anything on the market, Mr. Majetic chose to use his company’s one million square feet of manufacturing capacity to build his dream car.

The chassis of the XD was designed and manufactured from the ground up by Dok-Ing in Croatia, as was the car’s computer control systems. The company tapped Bosch, a major auto supplier, for the car’s braking and electronic stability systems.

The packaging of the XD is clever, yielding more rear cargo space than what’s offered in the similar-size Smart Fortwo. “My friends are always joking with me that we’ll first sell this car to the mobsters, because it’s small and it’s fast,” said Tomislav Bosko, Mr. Majetic’s son-in-law and Dok-Ing’s product manager. “And because the trunk is big enough to fit a body,” he added.

Dok-Ing, a company with annual sales of $40 million, according to Mr. Majetic, has made only three units. One is here at the show, while in Croatia there is an open-top version as well as one equipped with all-wheel drive.

Dok-Ing Automotiv has spent about $3 million, according to Mr. Bosko. The company hopes to ramp up to about 1,000 cars a year, after selling about 100 in Europe in 2012. The price tag is $80,000.

Dok-Ing is showing its XD in Los Angeles with the hope that it would attract an American investor to bring the car to the United States. The E.V. is exhibited directly adjacent to luxury wares from Rolls-Royce, Aston Martin, Bentley and another start-up, the Mexican supercar company Mastretta.

Mr. Majetic said only a few words at Dok-Ing’s press conference here Thursday, but he made them count.

“If you have dreams, and you really want to achieve them, you can do what you wish,” he said.

“If you have money,” his son-in-law added.




Bradley Berman

More info about RES & EE :

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

utorak, 22. studenoga 2011.

Solarno Termalni Sustavi HCOIE



Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije

Elementi solarno-termalnog sustava


Shematski prikaz elemenata solarnog sustava

Shematski prikaz elemenata solarnog sustava

Svaki se aktivni solarni sustav za zagrijavanje prostora ili potrošne sanitarne vode sastoji od receptora sunčeve energije (solarni kolektor), akumulatora topline (solarni spremnik), solarne crpke, solarne radne tvari, regulacijske jedinice solarnog sustava te armature, cjevovoda i toplinske izolacije. Solarni kolektori apsorbiraju i prikupljaju sunčevu energiju. Dozračena sunčeva energija prolazi kroz prozirnu površinu kolektora, koja propušta zračenje samo u jednom smjeru te se pretvara u toplinu, koja se predaje prikladnom prijenosniku topline (solarna radna tvar). Solarna radna tvar (voda) prenosi toplinu u akumulator topline (solarni spremnik).

Solarni spremnici su jednostavan ili kombinirani sustav za trajnije skladištenje dobivene topline u kojem se skuplja toplinska energija dobivena iz sunčeve energije. Ljuska spremnika (akumulatora) je od tvrdog poliuretana i osigurava visoki stupanj toplinske izolacije. Veličina solarnog spremnika ovisi o potrebama za toplom vodom i vrsti izvora energije. Solarne crpke ili pumpe su uređaji, koji služe za prijenos radne tvari s niže na višu razinu odnosno s nižeg na viši tlak. Mjesto na kojem se solarna crpka ugrađuje ima veliki utjecaj na odnose tlaka u instalaciji, a pri tome polazište predstavlja tzv. neutralna točka. I same mogu koristiti sunčevu fotonaponsku energiju za svoj rad. Solarna stanica s crpkom predstavlja središnji dio složenijeg solarnog sustava, jer omogućava nesmetano strujanje solarne radne tvari, dok automatska regulacija vodi računa o sigurnom pogonu cijelog sustava i usklađivanju njegovog rada sa sustavom grijanja i pripreme potrošne tople vode (PTV). Postoje i izvedbe solarnih sustava bez crpke (termosifonski sustav), a u njima se strujanje osniva na gravitacijskom djelovanju zbog razlike temperatura odnosno gustoće solarne radne tvari.

Solarna radna tvar je medij koji tjeran solarnom crpkom cirkulira kroz solarni sustav, odnosno cijevni razvod solarnog kruga od kolektora do spremnika u kojemu dolazi do izmjene topline s potrošnom sanitarnom vodom ili ogrjevnim medijem sustava grijanja, koji se zato zagrijavaju.
Pasivni sustavi obično su jeftiniji i jednostavniji od aktivnih, a najpoznatiji primjer pasivnog sustava predstavlja staklenik. Pasivni sustav za solarno grijanje kuće koristi toplinu pomoću građevinskih elemenata same kuće, velikih prozora okrenutih prema jugu, podovima i zidovima koji apsorbiraju toplinu tijekom dana i otpuštaju je po noći i sl.
Kao solarna radna tvar najčešće se koristi voda, odnosno njezina smjesa s glikolom ili drugim sredstvima za sprječavanje smrzavanja.

Regulacijska jedinica pomoću temperaturnih senzora omogućava toplinsko ekonomičan i siguran rad solarnog sustava, jer regulira vrijednosti temperature vode u spremniku prema ostalim elementima. Vremenski program, poželjna sobna temperatura, vanjska temperatura i drugi podaci utječu na djelovanje sistema za zagrijavanje. Regulator optimira sve navedene podatke i regulira cjelokupni sistem centralnog solarnog zagrijavanja i zagrijavanje sanitarne potrošne vode.

Armatura obuhvaća sve elemente cijevnog razvoda koji služe za otvaranje ili zatvaranje, odnosno za namještanje strujanja ogrjevnog medija kroz cijevi. U pravilu se izrađuju od materijala koji su otporni na koroziju. U cijevnu armaturu se ubrajaju ventili, zasuni, slavine, odzračnici itd. Ekspanzione posude su dio sigurnosne opreme toplovodnih sustava solarnog centralnog grijanja čija je osnovna namjena preuzimanje toplinskih rastezanja vode zbog promjena njezine temperature. S obzirom na izvedbu sustava u kojima se ugrađuju mogu biti otvorene i zatvorene.

Cijevni razvod je važan dio centralnih sustava solarnog grijanja, koji služi za prijenos topline od izvora do ogrjevnih tijela pomoću prikladnog ogrjevnog medija. Za izvođenje cijevnog razvoda uglavnom se koriste čelične, bakrene ili polimerne cijevi. Spojevi cijevnog razvoda sustava solarnog grijanja mogu biti izvedeni kao nerastavljivi ili rastavljivi. Koriste se različite standardne tehnike spajanja, zavarivanje, lemljenje, prešanje, lijepljenje itd. Osnovno načelo pri postavljanju cijevnog razvoda je da se cijevi trebaju voditi usporedno sa zidovima i stropom. Pri tome se instalacije mogu postavljati podžbukno (u zidu), nadžbukno (po zidu) ili kroz posebno izvedene kanale (šahte).

Toplinska izolacija cijevnog razvoda služi za sprječavanje nepotrebnog odvođenja topline u okoliš, a uz to materijali kojima se oblaže cijevni razvod mogu poslužit za smanjivanje buke i vibracija. Kako bi potrošna topla voda (PTV) bila dostupna tijekom čitave godine, uobičajeno je sunčevu energiju koristiti u kombinaciji s nekim drugim izvorom energije. Isti se u principu koristi kada sunčeva energija nije dostatna, da potrošna ili grijaća voda dosegne željenu radnu temperaturu. Ovakvi se kombinirani sustavi uobičajeno baziraju na neobnovljivim izvorima energije kao sekundarnoj pomoći čime se energetski troškovi umanjuju i do 2/3 kao i neželjeni utjecaji na okoliš. Sustav solarnog grijanje prostora može biti pasivan, aktivan ili kombinacija oba.

Pasivni sustavi obično su jeftiniji i jednostavniji od aktivnih, a najpoznatiji primjer predstavlja staklenik. Pasivni sustav za solarno grijanje kuće koristi toplinu pomoću građevinskih elemenata same kuće, velikih prozora okrenutih prema jugu, podovima i zidovima koji apsorbiraju toplinu tijekom dana i otpuštaju je po noći i sl. Ako se solarni sustav uvodi u već postojeću zgradu, aktivni sustav predstavlja gotovo jedinu mogućnost.

Autor: Darko Prebeg , dipl.ing.str.

Više informacija na: HCOIE

Samostalni HCOIE sustav sa rezervnim baterijama

(Fotonaponski solarni sistem)


Samostalni sustav sa rezervnim baterijama Ova vrsta sustava se koristi na udaljenim lokacijama gdje nema prisutnosti i/ili mogućnosti priključenja na gradsku elektrodistribucijsku mrežu.

"Samostalni sustav" znači da je vaš sustav fotonaponskih ćelija neovisan o gradskoj elektrodistribucijskoj mreži te služi isključivo za napajanje trošila u Vašem objektu.

Ovaj sustav vam omogućuje znatne uštede:

Priključak na elektrodistribucijku mrežu ukoliko je ista provedena pored vašeg objekta, košta 20.000,00 Kn! Ukoliko priključak na gradsku elektrodistribucijsku mrežu nije u blizini Vašeg objekta, troškovi se ekponencijalno povećavaju budući da je potrebno raditi dodatni iskop za polaganje kabela te ishoditi čitav niz dozvola!

Ovaj sustav je potpuno samostalan:

Ovaj sustav Vam omogućuje trajno napajanje vaših trošila budući da ima integrirane akumulatorske baterije koje omogućavaju izvor električne energije prilikom vrlo oblačnih dana ili tijekom noći tj. kada fotonaponski moduli ne mogu proizvesti dovoljno energije.

Postoji mogućnost ugradnje dodatnog elektro agregata čime ste u potpunosti osigurani od prekida u napajanju! Također, postoji mogućnost ugradnje DC kontrolera što omogućava napajanje električnih aparata koji koriste istosmjernu (DC) el.energiju.

U nastavku je jednostavan dijagram tipičnog samostalnog sustava sa rezervnim baterijama, uključujući i osnovne komponente i konfiguracije.

Kako sustav radi:

• Sunčeva svjetlost obasjava solarni modul, koji je vezan za krov vašeg objekta sa montažnim regalom.

• Solarne (fotonaponskie) ćelije unutar modula pretvaraju svjetlo u istosmjernu (DC) električnu energiju.

• Proizvedena električna energija putuje kroz žice do regulatora punjenja baterija koji mjeri napon baterija i regulira njihovo punjenje-baterije se održavaju stalno napunjenima kako bi se osigurao neprestan izvor energije

• Preostala električna energija se prenosi do istosmjernih (DC) trošila (opcija, ukoliko trebate istosmjenu el. energiju) i/ili DC/AC izmjenjivača

• Izmjenična el.energija potom putuje do distribucijskog ormarića s osiguračima i napaja Vaša trošila

• (Opcija) U slučaju nužde (dugačko vrijeme naoblake tj. bez vjetra ili nepredviđeni kvar na sustavu) sustav automatski pokreće diesel agregat i iz njega snabdijeva Vaša trošila.

Glavne komponente ovog sustava su:

• Montažni regali za pričvršćenje solarnih modula
• Solarni moduli
• Regulator punjenja baterija
• Akumulatorske baterije Inverterski uređaj

Više informacija na: HCOIE

Samostalni HCOIE hibridni sustav

(Hibridni solarni-vjetro sustav)


samostalni hibridni sustav Ova vrsta samostalnog sustava koristi se na udaljenim lokacijama gdje nema prisutnosti i/ili mogućnosti priključenja na gradsku elektrodistribucijsku mrežu, osobito na lokacijama sa većom nadmorskom visinom gdje su jači vjetrovi radi upotrebe vjetro-generatora.

"Samostalni sustav" znači da je vaš hibridni sustav sastavljen od fotonaponskih ćelija i vjetro-generatora neovisan o gradskoj elektrodistribucijskoj mreži te služi isključivo za napajanje trošila u Vašem objektu.

Ovaj sustav vam omogućuje znatne uštede:

Priključak na elektrodistribucijsku mrežu ukoliko je ista provedena pored vašeg objekta, košta 20.000,00 Kn! Ukoliko priključak na gradsku elektrodistribucijsku mrežu nije u blizini Vašeg objekta, troškovi se ekponencijalno povećavaju budući da je potrebno raditi dodatni iskop za polaganje kabela te ishoditi čitav niz dozvola.

Također, na vrlo udaljenim lokacijama ( planinarske kućice, otoci i slično) uopće ne postoji mogućnost spajanja na elektrodistribucijsku mrežu. Upravo su za takve lokacije hibridni sustavi idealno rješenje!

Ovaj sustav je potpuno samostalan:

Ovaj sustav Vam omogućuje trajno napajanje vaših trošila budući da ima integrirane akumulatorske baterije koje omogućavaju izvor električne energije prilikom vrlo oblačnih dana ili tijekom noći tj. kada fotonaponski moduli ne mogu proizvesti dovoljno energije ili za vrijeme kada nema dovoljno jakog vjetra za adekvatan rad vjetro-generatora.

Postoji mogućnost ugradnje dodatnog elektro agregata čime ste u potpunosti osigurani od prekida u napajanju! Također, postoji mogućnost napajanja električnih aparata koji koriste istosmjernu (DC) el.energiju izravno sa akumulatorskih baterija.

Prednosti hibridnog sustava se očituju u visokom stupnju sigurnosti napajanja el.energijom budući da su na rasplaganju tri primarna izvora energije ( vjetro-generator, solarni paneli i baterije) te ,opcijski, četvrti izvor u vidu diesel agregata.

U nastavku je jednostavan dijagram tipičnog hibridnog sustava sa rezervnim baterijama, uključujući i osnovne komponente i konfiguracije.

Kako sustav radi:

1) Vjetar pokreće vjetro-generator koji proizvodi istosmjernu (DC) el.energiju te ju, preko ugrađenog regulatora, šalje baterijama tj. prema DC/AC izmjenjivaču 2) Sunčeva svjetlost obasjava solarni modul, koji je vezan za krov vašeg objekta samontažnim regalom.
3) Solarne (fotonaponske) ćelije unutar modula pretvaraju svjetlo u istosmjernu (DC) električnu energiju.
4) Proizvedena električna energija putuje kroz žice do regulatora punjenja baterija koji mjeri napon baterija i regulira njihovo punjenje-baterije se održavaju stalno napunjenima kako bi se osigurao neprestan izvor energije
5) Preostala električna energija se prenosi do istosmjernih (DC) trošila (opcija, ukoliko trebate istosmjenu el. energiju) i/ili DC/AC izmjenjivača
6) Izmjenična el.energija potom putuje do distribucijskog ormarića s osiguračima i napaja Vaša trošila
7) (Opcija) U slučaju nužde (dugačko vrijeme naoblake tj. bez vjetra ili nepredviđeni kvar na sustavu) sustav automatski pokreće diesel agregat i iz njega snabdijeva Vaša trošila.

Glavne komponente ovog sustava su:

• Vjetro-generator s regulatorom
• Montažni regali za pričvršćenje solarnih modula
• Solarni moduli
• Regulator punjenja baterija
• Akumulatorske baterije Inverterski uređaj

Više informacija na: HCOIE


Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

OTKUP ELEKTRIČNE ENERGIJE


HCOIE

OTKUP ELEKTRIČNE ENERGIJE

TARIFNI SUSTAV
REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE


Za proizvodnju električne energije
iz obnovljivih izvora energije i
kogeneracije.

HEP | HERA | HROTE




PROCEDURE ZA SUSTAVE DO 10KW SNAGE

Potpora ministarstvu gospodarstva,
rada i poduzetništva u koncipiranju
jasnih i nedvojbenih postupaka u
razvoju i ishodenju dozvola za
provedbu projekata i izgradnju
obnovljivih izvora energije.


PROCEDURE ZA SUSTAVE OD 10KW DO 30KW

Potpora ministarstvu gospodarstva,
rada i poduzetništva u koncipiranju
jasnih i nedvojbenih postupaka u
razvoju i ishodenju dozvola za
provedbu projekata i izgradnju
obnovljivih izvora energije.



PROCEDURE ZA SUSTAVE IZNAD 30KW SNAGE

Potpora ministarstvu gospodarstva,
rada i poduzetništva u koncipiranju
jasnih i nedvojbenih postupaka u
razvoju i ishodenju dozvola za
provedbu projekata i izgradnju
obnovljivih izvora energije.


Više informacija o OIE i EE na :

HRVATSKI CENTAR OBNOVLJIVIH IZVORA ENERGIJE (HCOIE)

ponedjeljak, 21. studenoga 2011.

Clean Water for every Day




Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources


promotes

The Watercone®



The Watercone® is a solar powered water desalinator that takes salt or brackish water and generates freshwater. It is simple to use, lightweight and mobile. The technology is simple in design and use and is discribed by simple pictograms. With max. 1,6 liters a day the Watercone® is an ideal device to cover a childs daily need of freshwater.

UNICEF: "every day 5000 children die as a result of diarrhea coused by drinking unsafe water"


Photo: Watercone


Passive Solar One Step Water Condensation FTW!

We wrote about the Watercone, but considering how much TreeHugger's audience has grown since then, it's likely that only a handful of you were reading the site back then.

I think it's time to have a second look at this very clever device that has the potential to help provide clean drinking water for millions of people who are lacking access to clean water (or if they do, maybe the access is intermittent and they could use a plan B).

This could save many lives for sure.

Read on for more details and a demonstration video.

Photo: Watercone

Step #1: Pour salty / brackish Water into pan.

Then float the Watercone(r) on top.

The black pan absorbs the sunlight and heats up the water to support evaporation.


Photo: Watercone

Step #2: The evaporated Water condensates in the form of droplets on the inner wall of the cone. These droplets trickle down the inner wall into a circular trough at the inner base of the cone.


Photo: Watercone

Step #3: By unscrewing the cap at the tip of the cone and turning the cone upside down, one can empty the potable Water gathered in the trough directly into a drinking device.




It's also very durable, easy to transport (they stack easily), inexpensive to produce, and low-tech enough that it can be used even if no other infrastructure is present.


More info about RES & EE on: solarserdar@gmail.com

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)