srijeda, 29. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR recommends SMA Solar Technology

SOLAR SERDAR
recommends SMA Solar Tehnology

Company Profile
About SMA America, LLC

SMA America, LLC is the U.S. subsidiary of SMA Solar Technology AG, based in Germany. With over three gigawatts installed, SMA is the world leader in solar inverter technology and manufacturing with divisions in nine countries on four continents. SMA is committed to its leadership role, offering exceptional value with the most efficient and reliable solar inverters in the industry. SMA takes special pride in promoting renewable energy solutions at all levels, through education, information and support for the general public, solar installers as well as small and large businesses worldwide.

About SMA Solar Technology AG

SMA Solar Technology AG develops, produces and sells solar inverters and monitoring systems for photovoltaic applications. SMA is the world’s largest producer in this segment and is the only vendor that has a product range with the matching inverter type for any module type and any power class. This applies for grid tied applications as well as island and backup operation.

The inverter is technologically the most important component in any solar power system: it converts the direct current generated in photovoltaic cells into alternating current suitable for the grid. In addition, it is an intelligent system manager, responsible for yield monitoring and grid management. Solar inverters are characterized by a particularly high efficiency. The Sunny Mini Central produced by SMA already has an efficiency of over 98 %, which allows for increased electricity production.

SMA’s business model is driven by technological progress. Due to its flexible and scalable production, SMA is in a position to quickly respond to customer demands and promptly implement product innovations. This allows the Company to easily keep pace with the dynamic market trends of the photovoltaic industry and at the same time absorb short-term fluctuations in demand for solar inverters.

SMA Solar Technology AG is headquartered in Niestetal, near Kassel, and is represented by sales and service subsidiaries on four continents in thirteen countries. This group of companies employs more than 5,500 employees (incl. temporary staff) and has been distinguished several times in previous years with awards for its outstanding performance as an employer. Since June 27, 2008, the Company has been listed in the Prime Standard of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (S92), and since September 22, 2008, the Company’s shares have been listed in the TecDAX. In 2009, SMA generated an earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) of more than € 228 million from a turnover of more than
€ 934 million. This corresponds to an EBIT margin of over 24 %.

Technological Leaders
As technological leaders, we know what our clients want: SMA develops and manufactures highly efficient solar inverters for any installation size, all power classes and any specifications worldwide, regardless of the type of solar modules.

Unequaled for innovation
Whether it is the Electronic Solar Switch, OptiTrac or H5-Topology: with our speed for innovation we leave others far behind us. A development team with 450 members and at least five innovations a year speak for themselves.

Cooperative
13 foreign subsidiaries on four continents: we are a strong partner for our clients worldwide. With the Sunny PRO Club and the SMA Solar Academy. And an exceptional service concept.

Reliable.
Either one has it or not: experience is irreplaceable. In our case it consists of 29 years in systems technology for photovoltaics. Perhaps this is the reason why our inverters are more reliable and long-lived than any other device on the market.

Grid-Tied Inverters
------------------------
SMA Inverters – The Heart of Every Solar Power System

Harness the energy of the sun – with a solar inverter from SMA. Inverters convert the direct current electricity generated by solar panels info grid-compatible alternating current. They are the heart of every solar power system.

As the global leader in solar inverters, SMA is continually on the cutting-edge: industry-leading efficiencies of 98% and superior German engineering ensure reliable and carefree operation.

From kilowatt to megawatt, we offer you the right device for any application, regardless of module type or grid connection status.

SUNNY BOY
For small and mid-range systems

The Sunny Boy solar inverters characterize the Technology- and Quality-Leadership of our company. They are optimally suitable for use in small and mid-range systems. They impress with first class efficiency, user-friendliness and reliability.

The Sunny Boys have been repeatedly acclaimed - and are constantly developing. Our new Generation come with innovative technologies such as OptiTrac and H5-Topology. These make the device even more efficient - and therefore ensure a very good solar yield.

SUNNY TOWER
The flexible solution for commercial PV systems

SMA brings you the best in commercial inverter solutions: the Sunny Tower. Designed with the installer in mind, we’ve combined ease of installation, lowest specific cost ($/watt), and the highest efficiency to maximize rebates and power production while minimizing your payback period. The Sunny Tower combines all the advantages of string inverters with the installation advantages of central inverters. The Sunny Tower offers you the flexibility and reliability you’ve come to expect from SMA.

Central Inverters
SUNNY CENTRAL
- High Tech for solar power stations

We have developed the Sunny Centrals specially for use in large PV power stations and open-field plants. Hence they possess completely special properties. String monitoring, capacity for teamwork and the ability to feed into the medium-voltage power grid make them first choice for PV systems with homogenous structure.

The Sunny Centrals are easy to install - indoors as well as outdoors. With peak efficiencies of over 98 % they belong to the most efficient central inverters on the market. maximum reliability and durability furthermore ensures the greatest investment security.More info at http://solarserdar.wordpress.com

Off-Grid Inverters
-----------------------
SUNNY ISLAND – The Versatile System Manager

The Sunny Island offers you an innovative solution for the installation of self-sufficient energy systems. In conjunction with a battery pack, the devices form a high quality, stand-alone AC voltage grid.

In the Sunny Island system, electricity generators and consumers are integrated. PV and wind energy systems, diesel devices, water or CHP (Combined Heat and Power) can be AC coupled as conventional 120 volt consumers.

The Sunny Island offers installers two decisive advantages. During system planning and layout, you enjoy premium versatility. During installation, complex DC cabling is not required.

SUNNY ISLAND 5048 / 5048USThe Island Manager

Commissioning within minutes: the Sunny Island 5048 makes it possible. All required operational settings can be made quickly and easily in just a few steps. The Sunny Island 5048 is flexible in its application, extendable and takes on all control processes. Its first-class battery management ensures maximum battery life. In addition, the device features an impressive high-efficiency, ergonomic die-cast aluminum enclosure and an OptiCool active cooling system. The Sunny Island is also available in a UL-compliant 5048-US version with an output rating of 120 V and 60 Hz for the North American market.

SUNNY ISLAND 3324 / 4248 / 4248USStand-alone grids easier than ever

Easy installation, safe operation and outstanding price-performance ratio: the Sunny Island 3324 and 4248 battery inverters are especially suitable for use in small and mid-sized stand-alone grids. The Sunny Island 4248-US model is available for countries with voltage systems compatible with the U.S. standard. The devices guarantee a reliable and high-quality power supply. Due to their outstanding overload capabilities and the fact that they are designed to withstand high ambient temperatures, these devices can be used under extreme weather conditions.More info at http://solarserdar.wordpress.com

Wind Energy
WINDY BOY

– Grid-Connected Small Wind Energy Inverters
-----------------------------------------------------------

The grid-coupling of small wind energy plants is simpler than ever - with the Windy Boy from SMA. It converts the variable frequency voltage from wind generators into grid-conforming AC voltage. The energy can then be used, with excess energy being fed back into the main utility grid. The Windy Boy works in perfect tandem with the Sunny Island, creating stand-alone grids for the electrification of remote areas.

The Windy Boys are suitable for wind generators from a wide variety of manufacturers and power classes. They guarantee an optimal power adjustment and very high energy yields.

They are also versatile and optimally suited for worldwide use – enclosed in a protective housing, the SMA Grid Guard disconnection device, the electric separation to the grid along with an automatic 50 or 60 Hz recognition.

WINDY BOY 5000-US / 6000-US / 7000-US / 8000-USA cost-effective option with UL certification

Maximum energy yields for a growing market: the Windy Boy inverters for countries with UL certification feature premium efficiency. They are easy to combine, and more than one device can be operated on a single wind power plant, which makes it possible to easily connect plants with higher power to the grid. The automatic grid voltage detection* allows for a straightforward and secure installation. The galvanic isolation also ensures safety as well as flexible connection options. The weather-proof enclosure and the wide temperature range allow for installation at almost any location. Four devices, a single technology: the best choice for small wind plants over 5 kW.

WINDY BOY 3000-USA reliable option with UL certification

User-friendly, safe and reliable: the Windy Boy 3000-US is specially certified for the US market. The automatic grid voltage detection* allows for a straightforward and secure installation. The aluminum die-cast enclosure and the OptiCool active cooling system ensure optimal yield as well as a long lifespan, even under adverse operating conditions. More info at http://solarserdar.wordpress.com

Monitoring Systems
Keep Every Cent – Continually Monitor System Performance
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

With the decision to install a PV system, your customers also commit to a long-term investment. This means that it is essential that the system function smoothly at all times.

Our products for system monitoring offer you a wide range of possibilities: wireless or Internet-based, compact or complex, concise or elaborate. Regardless of whether you want to monitor the yield of a home roof system or of an open-field solar power station, you will find the perfect solution for every application with SMA Monitoring.

SUNNY BEAM with Bluetooth® Wireless Technology
The all-in-one service package for the home

Informative, compact, and easy to operate: Sunny Beam with Bluetooth doesn't just look good, it's an innovative monitoring solution. The key data is visible on its large graphic display: daily profile, current output, as well as daily and total energy yield. The performance of up to 12 inverters, the monthly overview, the energy yield in euros, and the CO2 savings can all be accessed with one hand. Data for a minimum of 90 days is stored in the device and can be transmitted to a PC via a USB cable – without an Aadditional program. And in the event of errors, the Sunny Beam can also be set up to emit an acoustic signal.

SUNNY WEBBOX
Remote monitoring and maintenance of large solar power plants

System monitoring, remote diagnosis, data storage and visualization: the Sunny WebBox is the high-performance communication hub for medium- to large-scale solar power plants. It continuously collects all the data from the inverters on the system side, thereby keeping you informed of the system‘s status at any given time. The Sunny WebBox is a multi-functional, energy-efficient data logger which offers a wealth of options for displaying, archiving and processing data, even in networks with strict security regulations. In case of the event “Error”, the WebBox informs you immediately by e-mail or text message*. Even from remote locations where no DSL or telephone connection is available, measurement data can be transmitted to the Sunny Portal via a GSM modem.

SUNNY PORTAL
Professional management, monitoring and presentation of PV systems

Whether for a small home system or a large solar park – central administration and monitoring of several PV plants saves time and money. Plant operators, installers and SMA service technicians have access to key data at any time, from any location. Pre-configured standard pages can be easily customized or supplemented with individually designed pages. Whether as a data table or as a highly configurable diagram: SMA solutions allow almost infinite options for analyzing measured data or visualizing yields. The yields of all inverters in a plant are compared fully automatically, permitting detection of even the smallest deviations. And the powerful reporting functions provide regular updates via E-mail to help insure yields.

More information: www.SunnyPortal.com

SUNNY SENSORBOX
The weather station for PV plants

The Sunny SensorBox is installed directly onto the modules and measures the sun radiation and temperature. In combination with Sunny WebBox and Sunny Portal, it provides a continuous target-actual comparison of plant performance. This makes it possible to detect shade, dirt, and gradually declining performance in a generator and thus maximizes yield security. Additional sensor for optional measurement of ambient temperature or wind speed permit more precise calculations.More info at http://solarserdar.wordpress.com

Software
--------------
Free design and presentation support

Whether you need data archiving, a visual format to display your energy production or system design support, our software offers a solution. It is suitable for all system sizes, is easy to use, and is configured to work seamlessly with other SMA components.

We gladly provide our software to download free of charge.

SUNNY EXPLORER
The free PC software solution

Switch on your laptop or PC, activate the Bluetooth interface, and start Sunny Explorer – that's all that's needed to give operators and installers an overview of their PV plant. The free PC software is thus the optimum addition to the new generation of inverters with integrated Bluetooth. The key plant data can be visualized on the PC or laptop – quickly and wirelessly with Bluetooth. Energy values and events can be archived long-term by means of data export in CSV format, and processed and visualized in Excel. Sunny Explorer also provides support during inverter parameterization: because no complicated cabling is needed, PV plant maintenance is convenient and fast.

SUNNY DESIGN
System design made easy

With Sunny Design, the design of solar systems is easier than ever: simply enter all required details and within a few minutes you will receive the optimal system configuration. The free software gives installation engineers and system planners a user-friendly interface, and a practical input wizard helps with any questions. The software delivers data for an economic evaluation of the system along with a technical verification of the various components. Thus, the end customer gains a tailor-made PV system and the installation engineers save valuable time.

FlashviewProfessional plant presentation free of charge

Yields, current output, environmental and ambient data: Flashview presents solar plants on an ordinary display attached to a PC. Different display views either switch automatically or can be manually selected by the viewer. Flashview queries the plant data from Sunny WebBox via an existing network connection – optionally via the Internet from any location in the world. And you can integrate images of your own plant as well as external RSS feeds.

SUNNY DATA CONTROL
Everything under Control

Sunny Data Control is the ideal addition for system monitoring with Sunny Boy Control and a PC. The free software archives the data from the data logger long-term on the PC, evaluates and presents it visually on the monitor.

A further advantage: Sunny Data Control can be configured to directly communicate with your inverter and a PC. Thus it is possible to set your system's parameters without a data logger.

SMA Solarchecker
– Does Solar Power on My Roof Make Sense?
iPhone-App for estimating the yield of PV plant.

"Is it worth having a photovoltaic plant on my roof?" A question that many home owners are asking themselves. Specialists who own an iPhone 3GS can reply in just a few seconds – thanks to the Solarchecker from SMA. The application for the iPhone estimates the possible current yield of a PV plant in no time at all – directly on site.

How to find SMA ?
ADRESS
SMA America, LLC
6020 West Oaks Blvd
Rocklin, CA 95765 U.S.A.

Tel. +1 916 625 0870
Fax +1 916 625 0871
Toll Free 1-888-4SMAUSA

info@SMA-America.com
www.SMA-America.com

SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

utorak, 28. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR recommends SOLON SE

SOLAR SERDAR recommends SOLON SE

Energy from the sun.
The amount of energy our sun gives us every single day is equivalent to 2,850 times our worldwide energy needs. Depending on the region, around 1000 watts of sunshine per square meter reach the ground. Just what an inconceivable amount of energy this is becomes clear when you consider that the sun could meet one year’s worth of our global energy needs in just three hours. One thing is clear: we must take advantage of that.

Company.
SOLON SE is one of the largest solar module manufacturers in Europe and a leading supplier of photovoltaic systems for large-scale solar power plants. The SOLON Group has subsidiaries in Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and the U.S. The SOLON Group's core business is the manufacture of solar modules in various performance categories and of complete photovoltaic systems for the construction of solar power plants as well as the construction of turn-key solar power plants worldwide.SOLON SE was founded in 1997 and went public in 1998, making it the first listed solar energy company in Germany.

Group revenue for 2009 was € 354 million. SOLON employs about 900 people group-wide. More than half of revenue is generated outside Germany. SOLON anticipates a further significant growth for the coming years.

The company's success is driven by its passion for ecological change. This passion for a sustainable future is summarized in SOLON's central mission statement:

"We are passionate fighters for ecological change in the energy market. We revolutionize the usage of solar energy with our innovations. We are: The Pioneers of Power."More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

How your power plant works.

1. Modules
SOLON photovoltaic modules consist of several interconnected solar cells made of the semiconductor silicon, which have a poly- or monocrystalline structure depending on the production technique used. A solar cell’s silicon is doped differently on the front and rear sides to create one positive and one negative charge carrier surplus, producing an electrical potential at the junction of the two differently doped layers. When sunlight strikes the solar cells, the silicon begins conducting and voltage is generated across the cells’ metal contacts, creating direct current.

2. Inverter
Direct current created in the solar cells cannot be fed directly into the public grid: an inverter converts direct current into 230-volt alternating current so that it can be used normally.

3. Export meter
You can use the produced energy in your own home or feed it inot the grid. Grid-connected plants require an export meter that measures the energy fed into the grid in kilowatt hours (kWh).

4. Public grid
The alternating current created and fed into the public grid can then be used by all consumers.

How to become an electricity producer.
A solar plant from SOLON pays for itself in three different ways: it converts free solar radiation into valuable electricity, protects our environment and gives you a high-yield capital investment for decades of high returns. All with low operating costs and without added risk. You could call that a real investment for the future.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Project development.
Our specialist partners will put you in touch with a SOLON installer in your area. He or she will perform a general assessment to determine the suitability of your home by using your house’s building plans or through an on-site appointment. If the result is positive, a yield simulation and subsequent profitability analysis for your roof will be performed. Many SOLON installers will also be able to help you hold any necessary discussions with the bank and public authorities.

Planning and construction.
As no roof is identical to another, your pv system will be planned individually. During installation, the installer will be your expert contact person when it comes to construction management, scheduling and installation.

Opertion and service.
As soon as all work has been completed, your solar power plant can be connected to the public power grid. That means it is time to sit back and enjoy the sun!

In many countries you will also enjoy these exclusive benefits with your SOLON solar insurance*:
Loss-of-production coverage when exchanging the inverter
Reimbursement of all costs incurred in connection with roof repairs resulting from damage to the PV system (e.g. caused by snow pressure)
Cost coverage (removal and reinstallation costs, transport and storage costs) as well as reimbursement for loss of output in the event of removal of an undamaged system

* Applies to Germany, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, France, Luxemburg, Belgium, Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Quality is in the details.

A solar power system is a long-term investment that should generate returns for at least 30 years. SOLON solar power systems are known for setting new standards of longevity. When developing our products, we do not just rely on the use of high-quality materials and innovative technology, but also on years of experience and the expertise of leading solar experts throughout Europe and the US. Strict controls throughout the entire production process ensure the outstanding quality of our modules. This is why SOLON is continually setting new standards when it comes to reliability, performance and quality.

Cell technology. Reliable and efficient.
Use of the latest cell technology from the world’s leading manufacturers
High efficiency and excellent low-light performance
Frame. Stable and long-lasting.
42 mm durable anodized aluminum twin-wall frame profile
Drainage holes for outstanding weather-resistance
Solar glass. Ultra transparent and robust.
Ultra hardened, low-reflection 4 mm solar glass
Excellent transparency for optimum yields
Quality connection boxes. Resilient and safe.
Meeting the highest safety standards
SOLON Advantages.

What makes SOLON different from other solar module producers? It is very simple: SOLON offers more. Better value, better service, better performance.

We are a listed company and know very well that green investment must provide a good return.

Solar does not equal solar.
Many companies work in the field of photovoltaics, but only a few can equal our comprehensive know-how and experience in the field of power-plant construction and module production.

SOLON solar insurance.
In all European countries and in Switzerland, SOLON rooftop systems are covered by a two-year SOLON insurance policy.
Specialist partners.

If you are looking for the highest quality when choosing a photovoltaic system, there is no room for compromise when it comes to consultation and installation quality. Installers of SOLON modules receive comprehensive training directly from us. With extensive consultation and achievement of the highest quality, you can enjoy your PV system for many years to come and ensure your investment will be secure and profitable for just as long. Looking for a SOLON installer close to you? We will be happy to provide you with the contact information for an installer in your vicinity.

SOLON specialist partners.
First-class products require first-class partners: SOLON products are sold by selected specialized dealers and installed by experts.

SOLAR SERDAR - Solar technology FAQs:

What is photovoltaics?
Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of solar energy into electric current using solar cells.

How do photovoltaics work?
When light strikes a solar cell, it creates an electric voltage between the surface facing the light and the surface turned away from the light. When the electric circuit is closed, electric current flows. (Source: DGS)
What does a solar power system consist of?
The base unit of a PV system is the solar module. Several modules are connected to a solar generator. Because the generator creates direct current, it requires an inverter to convert the direct current into alternating current for standard electrical applications. The electricity is then fed into the public power grid via a meter.
What is a module made of?
The main components of the modules are the solar cells. Several of these cells are combined into one module. The module is then laminated in a plastic layer and framed between a glass cover plate and a rear panel.
What steps are involved in the value creation chain for module creation?
Silicon raw material is derived from silicon-rich rock (e.g. sand). The silicon is melted to form blocks known as ingots. The ingots are then cut into paper-thin discs called wafers. The wafers are then used to make solar cells that form the main constituent of module production.
What kinds of PV systems are there?
In general, there are two different kinds of systems:
1. Structure
The most common type of mounting is the rooftop installation. This method makes particularly efficient use of space. Further mounting options include rooftop integration and building integrated systems.

2. Freestanding
Freestanding plants are systems that are mounted on the ground. The modules can be fixed or installed so that they track the sun.
How is a photovoltaic system different from a solar thermal system?
Instead of generating electricity from sunlight, a solar thermal system generates heat in the form of hot water or heat energy.

Use roof areas.
Many rooftop areas in industry and commerce are still unused.

What many companies do not know: they are losing promising additional income because rooftop photovoltaic systems can be used to generate extra profit.

Rooftop systems from SOLON.
A solar power system from SOLON is a profitable choice and a simple and safe investment. Our "all around carefree package" means that you do not have to worry about planning, construction or initial operation. SOLON and its partners will take care of all that.

Even after installation, everything has been arranged: a 10-year product warranty, a 25-year performance guarantee and integrated solar insurance are proof of that.
Highest performance during each phase of your project.
Solar systems on industrial and commercial buildings are a profitable business. In conjunction with our partners, we develop solutions that are custom-made for your requirements.

SOLON quality, which is renowned in this industrial sector, and our global references provide all the requirements for financing your project. SOLON is a listed company and therefore provides two essential benefits: transparency and financial strength.

Step by step to a sustainable investment.

SOLON can be your experienced partner. From planning to a turnkey solar plant. See for yourself: we have compiled a brief description of the most important project phases to give you an impression of a typical SOLON project:
Project development.
You have chosen a rooftop photovoltaic system and thus a sustainable investment. Congratulations - also to the environment!
First we check whether your roof is suitable for a photovoltaic system. We then make some profit simulations and economic analyses. At your request, our experts will also support you in discussions with banks and the authorities.
Planning and construction.
No roof is like another. Your system will therefore be individually planned and custom-made for your roof. During the building phase, too, you can fully rely on us: we monitor construction management, ensure that all components are delivered on time and check their proper installation.
Operation and service.
Once your solar power plant has been completed, we will connect it to the power grid. You will also benefit from comprehensive SOLON service after the initial operation: this includes monitoring the plant on site and from anywhere in the world via the Internet and technical operating support, including maintenance, inspection and repair of your system.
You can see: with SOLON you are on the safe side. We are so convinced of the reliability of your system that we will provide you with two years’ solar insurance* free of charge.

Contact.

SOLON SE

Am Studio 16
12489 Berlin • Germany
Phone: +49 30 81879-0
Fax: +49 30 81879-9999

More info at solarserdar@gmail.com
http://solarserdar.wordpress.com
http://solarserdar.blogspot.com
SOLAR SERDAR

subota, 25. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR *RENEWABLE ENERGY FAIRS / EVENTS

"NO ENERGY LIKE FREE ENERGY"
SOLAR SERDAR

November
DSC-IC 2010
... November 1 - 4; Cheyenne Mountain Resort; Colorado Springs, CO
The conference will bring together scientists, engineers, industrialists and investors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) technologies to discuss latest innovations in and applications for the progress of DSSC commercialization for technology.
Contact: Danielle Marks
Sponsor: IntertechPira
Phone: (207) 781-9637
Fax: (207) 781-2150
E-mail: danielle.marks@pira-international.com
Web site: www.dsc-ic.com

Advanced Energy Conference 2010
November 8 - 9; New York Hilton; New York City, NY
The conference will comprise national keynote speakers from DOE, DHS, NIST, NYSERDA and others on both days. A poster session will also accompany the 228 international, national and state energy leaders who are presenting this year.
Sponsor: AERTC
Web site: www.aertc.org/conference2010

OSEA Community Power Conference
November 14 - 17; Metro Toronto Convention Centre; Toronto, ON
This Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA)-hosted conference offers days of meeting and learning from community power experts, while the trade show displays the latest innovations in power generation technologies and services.
Contact: Tina Siegel
Sponsor: Ontario Sustainable Energy Association
Phone: (416) 972-7401
E-mail: tsiegel@ecostrategy.ca
Web site: www.cpconference.ca

December
PV Power Plants 2010 USA
December 1 - 2; Caesar's Palace Conference Center; Las Vegas, NV
This conference hosts industry leaders, focuses on large-scale solar power plants and aims to provide knowledge for decision-makers striving for a comprehensive understanding of the latest technologies, and market and industry developments.
Sponsor: Solarpraxis
Web site: www.solarpraxis.de/en/conferences

SEE Solar Energy 2010
December 3; Hotel Anel; Sofia, Bulgaria
This conference will review the current market situation of solar energy in southeast Europe, the DESERTEC initiative, and the future of solar energy regarding EU’s 2020 set targets, and provide a detailed look into Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece.
Sponsor: EastEuro Link
E-mail: london@easteurolink.co.uk
Web site: www.easteurolink.co.uk/see-solar

CanSIA Annual Conference & Exposition
December 6 - 7; Metro Toronto Convention Center; Toronto, ON
The conference will comprise industry leaders, elected and government officials,and solar colleagues from Canada and abroad to discuss developments in solar technology.
Sponsor: CanSIA
Web site: www.cansia.ca

RENEX
December 9 - 12; Istanbul Expo Center; Istanbul, Turkey
This event will feature discussions on renewable energy resources, energy efficiency, water treatment and fluid control technologies, among other topics.
Contact: Ulli Hammer
Sponsor: Hannover Fairs USA
Phone: (609) 987-1202 x 205
E-mail: uhammer@hfusa.com
Web site: www.hfusa.com/renex

Intersolar India 2010
December 14 - 16; Bombay Exhibition Centre; Mumbai, India
The event will focus on the development of the Indian solar market, as well as on promoting targeted cooperation among industry, commerce, service providers and politics within this quickly developing market.
Sponsor: Solar Promotion International GmbH
Phone: 49 0723158598
Web site: www.intersolar.in

Energy INDIA
December 15 - 18; Bombay Exhibition Centre; Mumbai, India
The show will cover the aspect of energy from generation to application.
Contact: Ulrike (Ulli) Hammer
Sponsor: Hannover Milano Fairs India Pvt Ltd
Phone: 1 6099871202 x 205
E-mail: uhammer@hfusa.com
Web site: www.energy-india.org

February 2011
PV Rollout Conference
February 10 - 11; Omni Parker House; Boston, MA
The two-day conference comprises lectures and presentations from solar industry experts, enthusiasts, and companies.
Contact: Gabriele Struthoff-Mueller
Sponsor: OTTI
Phone: +49 9412968829
Fax: +49 9412968817
E-mail: gabriele.struthoff-mueller@otti.de
Web site: www.otti.de

SNEC PV POWER EXPO 2011
February 22 - 24; Shanghai New International Expo Center; Shanghai, China
This event - one of the largest international PV shows - will feature many industry leaders as speakers. More than 1,000 exhibitors and 100,000 attendees are expected.
Contact: Teresa Wen
Sponsor: Shanghai New Energy Industry Association
Phone: 86 15821149946
E-mail: teresa.wen@snec.org.cn
Web site: www.snec.org.cn/indexe.asp

March
Electrotech EURASIA
March 17 - 20; TBA; Istanbul, Turkey
The Energy, Electric and Electronic Technologies Fair will comprise various technologies in the field (i.e., electrical energy generation systems, combustion engines, and renewable energy).
Contact: Ulrike (Ulli) Hammer
Sponsor: Hannover-Messe International Istanbul
Phone: 1 6099871202 x 205
E-mail: uhammer@hfusa.com
Web site: www.win-fair.com/en/electrotech.html

April
HANNOVER MESSE Energy
April 4 - 8; TBA; Hannover, Germany
Attention will focus on conventional and renewable energy generation concepts, as well as on transmission and distribution technologies.
Contact: Ulrike (Ulli) Hammer
Sponsor: Deutsche Messe AG
Phone: 1 6099871202 x 205
E-mail: uhammer@hfusa.com
Web site: www.hannovermesse.de/energy_e

Exhibition For Renewable Energy & Environment
April 27 - 30; CICES; Dakar , Senegal
The International Exhibition for Renewable Energy and Environment in Africa is open to companies, organizations and others involved in the various sectors of renewable energies and the environment.
Contact: Ben Basse
Sponsor: EXCAF
Phone: +221 338251963
Fax: +221 338242191
E-mail: consulting-energy@hotmail.com
Web site: www.sinergie-afrique.com

More info at solarserdar@gmail.com
SOLAR SERDAR

http://solarserdar.wordpress.com/
http://solarserdar.blogspot.com/

petak, 24. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR - FAQs

SOLAR SERDAR - FAQs
Solar energy is the cleanest, most abundant, renewable energy source available. And the U.S. has some of the richest solar resources shining across the nation. Today's technology allows us to capture this power in several ways giving the public and commercial entities flexible ways to employ both the heat and light of the sun.

The greatest challenge the U.S. solar market faces is scaling up production and distribution of solar energy technology to drive the price down to be on par with traditional fossil fuel sources.

Solar energy can be produced on a distributed basis, called distributed generation, with equipment located on rooftops or on ground-mounted fixtures close to where the energy is used. Large-scale concentrating solar power systems can also produce energy at a central power plant.

There are four ways we harness solar energy: photovoltaics (converting light to electricity), heating and cooling systems (solar thermal), concentrating solar power (utility scale), and lighting. Active solar energy systems employ devices that convert the sun's heat or light to another form of energy we use. Passive solar refers to special siting, design or building materials that take advantage of the sun's position and availability to provide direct heating or lighting. Passive solar also considers the need for shading devices to protect buildings from excessive heat from the sun.
Solar is an Emerging Economic Engine
A robust solar industry in the U.S. is an economic engine that will help relieve a struggling American economy. With aggressive and effective national policy, solar power will create tens of thousands of jobs across the country and will spur billions of dollars in economic growth and tax revenue. Consider the growth of solar in 2007:

New solar installations nationwide increased by more than 40 percent from 2006 to 2007.
Expansions of solar energy companies resulted in 6,000 new jobs, 265 megawatts of energy and more than $2 billion of investment in the U.S. economy by Wall Street firms such as JP Morgan, Chase and Goldman Sachs.
The first utility-scale solar power plant in the U.S. in 18 years went online.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimates that an additional thirty gigawatts of solar energy will be deployed as a result of the recent eight year extension of the solar investme. This is enough energy to power more than five million homes! NREL also estimates that the solar market would continue to drive increased deployment even after the tax credits expire.

An expanding solar market creates thousands of new jobs - jobs like electricians, construction workers, plumbers, line workers, roofers, engineers and high-paying manufacturing positions - for a struggling economy.

Solar Leads the Way in Stabilizing America's Energy Security
Energy security is increasingly finding its way into the national consciousness. Whether in terms of national security or our ability to respond to domestic challenges such as natural disasters, energy is one of the most critical issues facing the U.S. Solar provides crucial energy supplies vital to the function of homes, businesses and the entire economy.

The hurricanes in the fall of 2005 were a stark reminder of the vulnerability of our domestic supplies of oil and natural gas to severe weather and environmental factors. Not only does solar energy provide reliable access to energy where it is used, but it can supplement energy needs in blackouts and disaster recovery for electricity, water pumping and hot water.

With the cost of oil rising to more than $130 per barrel, a gallon of gasoline to more than $4 at the pump and skyrocketing electric bills, Americans are feeling the squeeze. Complicating matters, most of America's energy supply arrives from politically volatile regions of the world. Rapidly growing economies, such as China and India, are staking larger and larger claims to dwindling global energy resources. According to the Energy Information Agency, two-thirds of the petroleum and 20 percent of the natural gas consumed in the U.S. is imported from other countries, and U.S. production of both is dropping while consumption continues to rise.

A fully-developed U.S. solar market will decrease our overdependence on foreign sources of oil and natural gas and meet long term demands for domestically produced clean energy. The U.S. must make a long term investment in a diverse, clean, and renewable energy portfolio - with solar in the lead - if it is to have a secure energy future. More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Harnessing the Power of the Sun to Confront Global Climate Change
As global climate change impacts the way the U.S. addresses environmental policy, conducts business and harnesses energy, the solar energy industry is leading the way with a renewable energy source that creates economic growth and reduces carbon emissions. Solar is an pollution-free source of electricity and hot water that can be immediately deployed to reduce the nation's growing carbon footprint.

As the federal government considers climate change legislation, Congress should create carbon output-based market rules that encourage carbon-free technologies and allow energy sources such as solar to be rewarded for producing
Myths and Facts
MYTH #1: Solar devices require more energy to manufacture than they produce in their lifetime.

FACT:
This study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conclusively demonstrates that energy payback for photovoltaic (PV) power is, in the worst case, less than 4 years. Given that PV module lifetimes are generally in excess of 20 years, a PV system will produce far more energy than it consumes over its lifetime.


Technological progress in the four years since the issuance of this report has tended to bring down the energy consumption of PV manufacturing yet further, as silicon growth processes in particular become more efficient.

Energy output and input ratios for concentrating solar power (CSP) and solar thermal devices are even more favorable, given their simple manufacture. As best we can determine, this myth has its origins in the early history of PV power, when devices were essentially custom-fabricated for military, space and research markets.

MYTH #2: Solar manufacturing results in more pollution than is saved by solar usage.

FACT:
As shown in the NREL study above, a PV system meeting half of the electrical needs of a typical household would eliminate approximately half a ton of sulfur dioxide pollution from the air, and about 600 lbs. of nitrogen oxides. In contrast, the pollutants produced in the manufacturing process are minimal and largely recycled.

CSP plant equipment and solar thermal devices are essentially specialized formations of glass, steel, aluminum and plastics; their manufacture is comparable to that involved in making household windows, water heaters or mirrors.

PV devices are essentially "electric glass." Their typical silicon substrate is a close relative of window glass. The processes used to render it electrically reactive are the same as are used in the microchip manufacturing industry, acknowledged by states and municipalities as a clean manufacturing process.

MYTH #3: Solar is too expensive for widespread usage.

FACT:
Solar PV technologies have declined in price every year since they were introduced onto the market, driven by improved research and development, and most of all by steady increases in sales volume. (In 1954, approximately one watt of PV generating devices was manufactured. In 2004, approximately one billion watts will be manufactured worldwide.)

Every solar panel purchased makes the next one cheaper, in stark contrast to nonrenewable sources, which become scarcer and more expensive with every ton that is burned.

PV has recently exploded into a number of industrial markets, where it is quite simply the lowest -cost source of power available. These include highway warning signs, rural irrigation applications and remote electrical and communications devices. Similarly, for any application more than about half a mile away from the electrical grid, a solar system will likely prove less expensive than will power line construction.

The most rapidly-growing segment of the solar industry is for "grid connected" systems - rooftop solar panels on homes or businesses that remain connected to the conventional electrical grid. In some cases, as where electricity is more expensive during the middle of the day, or when solar is used to support power-critical applications (e.g. banking, microchip manufacturing), the economics are very compelling without further incentives. In other places, comparatively modest state or federal incentives (listed comprehensively at http://www.dsireusa.org can make solar a great investment for home or business owners that betters with every year. Utilities and large consumers are becoming more conscious of the value of solar and other generation sources with the publication of works like "Small is Profitable" - available at http://www.smallisprofitable.org.

MYTH #4: Solar won't work where I live.

FACT:
Solar thermal and PV devices are dependent on light, not heat - and this light does not need to be direct. Put another way, if you can find your way around outside, a solar panel could be working. The map below shows solar resources throughout the U.S. While the Southwest enjoys particularly good resources, the entire U.S. has adequate solar resources.
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More important than place-to-place variations in solar intensity is the price of daytime electricity where you live and the existence of state incentives for clean energy. A solar contractor in your area can give you a good idea of whether solar is right for you.

SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

četvrtak, 23. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR - NEWS DEPARTMENT

SOLAR SERDAR* PROJECTS & CONTRACTS
Recurrent Energy and Sharp Corp. have reached a definitive agreement for Sharp to acquire Recurrent Energy, a solar project developer and generating company with a 2 GW pipeline. The acquisition is expected to close before the end of this year, subject to customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals.

The terms of the agreement call for Sharp to pay up to $305 million in cash at closing, subject to balance-sheet adjustments, to purchase a 100% stake from Recurrent Energy shareholders. Recurrent Energy is a Hudson Clean Energy Partners portfolio company. Other shareholders include Mohr Davidow Ventures.

Recurrent Energy will retain its name, operating as a subsidiary of Sharp. Arno Harris, CEO of Recurrent Energy, will retain his title and continue to lead the company following the acquisition. Harris will report to Toshishige Hamano, Sharp's executive vice president responsible for overseas business. Recurrent Energy's executive team and employees will also continue with the company.

SOURCE: Recurrent Energy
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com

enXco, an EDF Energies Nouvelles company, and Portland General Electric (PGE) have entered into two power purchase agreements for solar photovoltaic installations to be located in the Willamette Valley near Salem, Ore. The two installations will combine for a total of 2.84 MW of generating capacity, providing power for approximately 2,300 homes at peak production.

enXco will develop, build and own the thin-film solar projects. PGE will purchase the power generated under a 25-year power purchase agreement. The projects are expected to commence construction in early 2011 and reach commercial operation in July 2011. enXco Service Corp. will operate and maintain the projects.

"These projects represent the largest ground-mounted solar PV installations in the Pacific Northwest, as well as the first solar development for enXco in the region," notes Troy Gagliano, project developer at enXco.

Both sites are located in the southeastern portion of Yamhill County. The Bellevue Solar project site will produce 1.69 MW, and the Yamhill Solar Project site will produce 1.15 MW. The projects will connect to the existing PGE utility system.

SOURCE: Portland General Electric
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com

The highest demand for PV inverters this year will come from both the smallest and the largest three-phase inverters, according a recently released report on the market from IMS Research. Shipments of inverters rated below 35 kW and above 500 kW are growing nearly 50% faster than the rest of the market.

The PV inverter market has achieved remarkable growth in the past few years, overcoming the collapse of the Spanish market to produce record shipments in 2009 - a feat set to be broken again in 2010 with close to 17 GW of shipments, IMS Research says. This growth has attracted many new entrants to the market, especially suppliers already active in similar markets.

However, although these suppliers have transferred their expertise in high power and produced large central inverters, it is the smaller three-phase products that are predicted to capture a greater share in the short term.

IMS Research’s recently published report has revealed that shipments of small three-phase inverters rated around 10 kW to 20kW are forecast to grow by around 170% this year. Inverters rated at over 500 kW are projected to grow at a similar rate but will capture a smaller share of the market.

In the longer-term, however, much faster growth is predicted for these larger inverters, with utility-scale installations emerging rapidly – although, due to their inherently lower price per watt, these inverters will still only account for 10% of revenues in 2014, the report says.

"Recently, demand for PV inverters in commercial installations appears to be splitting into two clear categories: very small three-phase products or very large central inverters," says Tom Haddon, PV research analyst at IMS. "While mid-sized central inverters offer a lower initial investment cost, shipments of inverters in the 10 kW to 20 kW range have increased massively in 2010, with a range of new models being released by major suppliers such as SMA, Kaco, SolarMax and Power-One.

"These products offer greater system design flexibility, easier installation and higher energy yields, and also better grid integration - a crucial factor, given the medium-voltage directive and reactive power legislation in Germany," Haddon adds.

Although it is forecast that these units will lose some market share to larger central inverters in the longer term as the emerging markets of the U.S., India and China drive demand for megawatt-sized substations, in the medium term, smaller three-phase models are forecast to be one of the prime revenue generators, as their adaptable nature can be applied to installations ranging from small commercial to multi-megawatt utility-scale installations.

SOURCE: IMS Research
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com

Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV) has begun a major expansion of the Colorado State University (CSU) solar plant at the Foothills Campus. The 3.3 MW addition, which will be located adjacent to the 2 MW facility that opened in December 2009 on Chrisman Field, is expected to be completed within four months, according to FRV.

With the expansion, the entire project will generate a total of 8.5 million kWh of electricity annually.

FRV will own the solar facility and will be responsible for operating and maintaining it over the 20-year contract term. FRV and CSU have entered into a power purchase agreement that enables CSU to purchase the electricity produced by the plant at a fixed rate for 20 years, without any up-front cost to the university. The university also has the option to purchase the solar plant at the end of the 20-year contract for the fair market value. At that time, the university could claim the full value of the renewable energy credits (RECs) generated by the plant.

The project is part of the Xcel Energy Solar Rewards program. Xcel will purchase the RECs generated by the system in support of Colorado’s renewable portfolio standard, which requires utilities to generate 30% of their power from renewable energy sources by 2020.

Global Energy Services will install the project as an FRV contractor. Advanced Energy, based in Ft. Collins, Colo., is supplying the inverters for the project.

SOURCE: Fotowatio Renewable Ventures
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com

ART TEC Solar has developed the DTC-D solar differential temperature controller, which is designed specifically for PV-powered collector circulation pumps used in solar heating systems.

This digital controller includes an internal battery backup that allows the controller to continue to display current temperatures and record maximum/minimum temperatures in the absence of solar power for several days, the company says. The controller's backlight makes it easy to read in dark utility rooms.

Features include max temperature shutoff, with optional over-temperature audible alarm, freeze alarm with optional freeze pumping for systems that operate from batteries, and resettable max/min display of recent temperature extremes. Front-panel controls allow easy changes to settings and manual override of the pump to on, off and auto modes, the company adds.

The new differential temperature controller will be available in November.

SOURCE: ART TEC Solar
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com

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SOLAR SERDAR

srijeda, 22. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR - REASON TO GO RENEWABLE

SOLAR SERDAR
Why Invest in Renewables?
If you're not at the power table, you're on the menu. Welcome to the Power business.

At this moment in history, a unique opportunity, barely recognized as yet, has presented itself to all of us who work for a living in America. We have the chance to take control of our own future as it relates to energy and power, food, and our local economies.

First, let’s look at Energy.

Distributed Renewable Energy is a concept that, until very recently, applied only to a few off-grid hippies, usually in the mountains somewhere. But oh how times have rapidly changed, and now these formerly mysterious technologies can become a very powerful force in shaping the future of our city.

We have a small window of opportunity here.

Our big government and big energy and power companies are planning your energy future right now. Their plan includes solar, wind, and a lot of coal. Their plan includes transmission fees, distribution fees, line loss fees, maintenance fees, infrastructure development fees, special assessments, big salaries, municipal taxes, state taxes, federal taxes, and more subsidies than ever before.


Thus far, our country has run almost exclusively on big, centralized power. We have grown up believing that this is normal and natural. But this is not the case at all.

Right now, before they can tax us into a second job, we can act. When we invest our own money in solar and wind, we can secure a future with far less need for coal and no need at all for all those taxes, fees and subsidies that can be raised every year without notice. We can use geothermal systems for our heating, air conditioning and hot water. We can use the grid (conventional power and electricity) for back up only, and sell back power, at a profit, whenever we have excess. We can also invest in carbon reduction projects, carbon financial instruments, carbon futures, and renewable energy credits.


Right now, big Energy and Power is investing in all these things, including geothermal, solar, and wind. And in the next five years, you are going to buy someone solar panels. If that someone is not you, the solar power you buy from them will be taxed and tarriffed. It will make you madder than anything that’s happened thus far. But the window will be closed, the opportunities gone.


Oh, you’ll pay for solar panels, anyway. But they won’t be yours. Still doubting...

Here are the Facts:




Natural Gas Prices are now at $1.25 per therm, commodity only, and are expected to nearly double in the next twelve months.
Electric Prices are higher than ever since recent deregulation and are forecasted to increase dramatically (25-40%) in the upcoming months.
Also, the greatest tax incentive that nobody talks about -is that there is no tax on your renewable energy system.

Well, you ask -how much money are we really talking about?

First, I will breakdown the cost of conventional electricity for one of our commercial clients:

For the month of May, our client, a large plastics manufacturer, was billed $23,778.31, of which $9095.93 was fees, taxes, and additional assessments. That means that Transmission Charges, Transmission and Distribution Loss Charges, Customer Charges, Franchise Costs, State Taxes, Municipal Taxes, Instrument Funding Charges, Environmental Cost Recovery Adjustments, Standard Metering Charges, Distribution Facilities Charges, and Nonstandard Facilities Charges, account for an additional 61%, on top of our clients actual electricity usage cost.
Next, we will examine natural gas costs for a typical Chicago 4 bedroom, 2 bath home.

For the month of April Natural Gas (Commodity) Costs totaled $177.03, on top of which our residential client paid an additional $65.49 in taxes, fees and assessments, including Monthly Customer Charges, Environmental Cost Recovery Charges, County, Government, Agency Comparative Adjustment fees, Franchise Customer Adjustment fees, Municipal Utility Taxes, Utility Fund Taxes, and State Revenue Taxes, which added an additional 39% to the Natural Gas usage cost.
In both of these examples, we see that added to the already steadily increasing, volatile cost of conventional Electricity and Power, fees, taxes and assessments add, on average, an additional 30-60% to your power and electric costs. Wouldn't you like to save that money, year after year?More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Other reasons to go renewable:


Take advantage of Federal tax credits and incentives, available for businesses and homeowners, accelerated depreciation for businesses, and state rebates, for RE energy systems.
Consider that heating your hot water is the second biggest natural gas expense, and you use it every day, all day--all year long. Shouldn't you save money on such a necessary expense?
Don't forget that Renewable Systems, like solar, wind and geo, add value to your property and are exempt from property taxes.
Own your energy at a fixed cost and free yourself from the rising, volatile cost of conventional power and energy, while Renewable systems for businesses and multi unit properties offer positive publicity opportunities while increasing assets and lowering liabilities.
Solar Energy will extend the life of your hot water heater and furnace by reducing their workload, and a geo system will completely eliminate your need for a furnace. In addition, Renewable Systems are long-lasting, cost efficient, quiet, reliable, and require very little if any maintenance.
Set up an on-site consultation with SOLAR SERDAR and start planning your energy future today!
SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

utorak, 21. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR - SOLAR DECATHLON

SOLAR SERDAR
Educational Resources for Homeowners
The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is a showcase of energy-efficient and renewable energy products that can be used by all homeowners. Visiting the Solar Decathlon and touring the team houses is a great way to see these products in action and learn about their use and benefits. Until the next event, you can learn more about renewable energy and energy-efficient products for your home by exploring the links below.

Energy Savers
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Energy Savers Web site is a vast resource where you can explore options for saving energy and using renewable energy at home, at work, in your community, and while driving.

Stay Warm, Save Money
This Energy Savers Web site provides homeowners with free and inexpensive strategies for saving energy and money through the cool fall and winter months as well as energy-saving investments that can provide savings over the long term.
Educational Resources for Building Professionals
The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon provides educational opportunities for building professionals of all disciplines. Visiting the Solar Decathlon, touring the team houses, and participating in Building Industry Day are great ways to learn about new building technologies and techniques. Until the next event, you can learn more about renewable energy and energy-efficient topics for building professionals by exploring the links below.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is an award-winning program that challenges 20 collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency.

The first Solar Decathlon was held in 2002; the competition has since occurred biennially in 2005, 2007, and 2009. The next event will take place on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., in fall 2011. Open to the public free of charge, visitors can tour the houses, gather ideas to use in their own homes, and learn how energy-saving features can help them save money today.

Purpose
The Solar Decathlon:

Educates student participants and the public about the many cost-saving opportunities presented by clean-energy products

Demonstrates to the public the opportunities presented by cost-effective houses that combine energy-efficient construction and appliances with renewable energy systems that are available today

Provides participating students with unique training that prepares them to enter our nation's clean-energy workforce.

Impact
Since 2002, the Solar Decathlon has:

Involved 92 collegiate teams, which pursued multidisciplinary course curricula to study the requirements for designing and building energy-efficient, solar-powered houses

Established a worldwide reputation as a successful educational program and workforce development opportunity for thousands of students

Affected the lives of 15,000 collegiate participants

Expanded its outreach to K–12 students by inviting schools in the Washington, D.C., area to visit on class tours.

In 2009, the Solar Decathlon:

Provided 307,502 house visits to the public over 10 days

Offered 32 workshops onsite for the public and held a dedicated day of workshops for builders and industry, which were attended by 506 professionals

Partnered with the National Education Association, which broadcast daily educational programming to classrooms around the nation

Reached millions of readers and viewers in markets across the globe through various media.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.
Solar Decathlon Competition
In the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon, 20 collegiate teams design and build energy-efficient houses powered exclusively by the sun. These teams spend almost two years creating houses to compete in 10 contests on the National Mall. The winning team produces a house that:

Is affordable, attractive, and easy to live in
Maintains comfortable and healthy indoor environmental conditions
Supplies energy to household appliances for cooking, cleaning, and entertainment
Provides adequate hot water
Produces as much or more energy than it consumes.

Solar Decathlon Teams
The 20 university-led teams that design, build, and operate the competition's solar-powered houses are the heart of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. Learn more about each of these teams competing in Solar Decathlon 2011:

Appalachian State University
Florida International University
Middlebury College
New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington
The Ohio State University
Parsons The New School for Design and Stevens Institute of Technology
Purdue University
The Southern California Institute of Architecture and California Institute of Technology
Team Belgium: Ghent University
Team Canada: University of Calgary
Team China: Tongji University
Team Florida: The University of South Florida, Florida State University, The University of Central Florida, and The University of Florida
Team Massachusetts: Massachusetts College of Art and Design and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell
Team New Jersey: Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey and New Jersey Institute of Technology
Team New York: The City College of New York
Tidewater Virginia: Old Dominion University and Hampton University
University of Hawaii
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Maryland
The University of Tennessee.

Solar Decathlon Europe 2012
The next Solar Decathlon Europe will occur in spring/summer 2012. Proposals for participation in Solar Decathlon Europe 2012 are due Nov. 3, 2010. For more information about the application process, see the Solar Decathlon Europe Web site.

Solar Decathlon Europe 2010
Modeled after the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon in Washington, D.C., the first Solar Decathlon Europe took place in Madrid, Spain, in June 2010. The decathletes spent 10 days competing in the Villa Solar near the Royal Palace (Palacia Real) of historic Madrid. A combination of task completion, measurement, and jury scoring determined Solar Decathlon Europe's first champion: Virginia Tech.
SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

subota, 18. rujna 2010.

Facebook | SOLAR serdar

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SOLAR SERDAR | "NO ENERGY LIKE FREE ENERGY"-SOLAR SERDAR

SOLAR SERDAR | "NO ENERGY LIKE FREE ENERGY"-SOLAR SERDAR

SOLAR SERDAR - Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

SOLAR serdar Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (EREV)
Current car batteries usually take several hours to fully charge, so Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) usage is limited to commuting and other short trips by the battery range.

To extend the range, some BEV manufacturers add a highly efficient Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powering a generator when the batteries are low. Such vehicles are called Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs), as well as Range-extended Electric Vehicles (ReEVs) or Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SPHEVs). Several models are to be commercialised as of 2011 (including GM's Chevy Volt and Opel Ampera). More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

For short distances, which represent about 80% of cars mileage, EREVs can operate in full electric mode and are therefore as clean and energy-efficient as BEVs (unlike parallel hybrids).

For longer distances, which represent only about 20% of cars mileage, EREVs operate in generator mode, in which they consume noticeably less fuel than conventional Internal Combustion Vehicles (ICVs) because:

The engine of an EREV is significantly smaller than of a conventional ICV, because EREV engine must only cover average power needs (peak power being delivered by the batteries), while ICV engines also must cover peak power surges (accelerations).

The engine of an EREV operates at a constant, highly efficient rotation speed, while the engine of an ICV often operates at low or high rotation speeds at which its efficiency is low.
We do promote EREVs as long as their battery power is sufficient for most commuting and other short trips, for which they will run on batteries (because it is much cheaper).
We recommend that the minimum battery power should allow an effective electric range of 50 to 100 km (75 to 150 km nominal).More info at solarserdar@gmail.com .

In a more distant future, two cleaner technologies should replace EREVs:

Ultrafast charging BEVs: Ultrafast charging stations, charging BEV batteries in less than 15 min, could spread on road networks. This would allow BEVs to charge nearly as conveniently as fuel cars and make them competitive against EREVs for long trips.

Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs): they are also very clean and can be refuelled quite fast. The could thererefore compete against EREVs in the future.
While FCVs are likely to become the winning technology in some transport applications, it is not yet clear which technology will win the passenger car market. It will largely depend on the cost of the vehicle and of the refuelling infrastructure (fast charging stations versus hydrogen refuelling stations).
AVEM is the Association for the Future of the Mediterranean Electric Vehicle. Founded in 1997, it aims at promoting actions for the development and use of electric vehicles.

AVEM has a network of more than 100 partners. Created in 2006, its website is a leading source of reliable information on electric vehicles in French, with a readership of more than 700.000 visitors in 2009.
ThePlugincompany, market leader in Belgium and Luxembourg, is a leading provider of sustainable and easy to use “plugin” solutions for recharging and driving electric vehicles.

The Elektrobay®, our stylish and intelligent on street charging post, has achieved design excellence with top finishing quality and is based on state-of-the-art, reliable and proven technology.

This is all available TODAY!
SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

srijeda, 15. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR - USE YOUR ROOF

SOLAR SERDAR - USE YOUR ROOF !!!
Solar energy is not only easy to use – it has the most power from all renewable energy forms. Just a small fraction of the solar radiation that hits the earth would be sufficient to cover world energy consumption. And that – at least with regard to primary energy costs – is free of charge: sunlight costs you nothing.

However, not only the quantity is impressive. Solar energy is particularly attractive due to its cleanliness. There are practically no emissions and no dangerous radiation. So it is well-suited to tackle current climatic problems.

In order to use solar energy, no new and complex technologies are needed that would probably make no contribution to generating energy in the near future, despite intense and costly research. Already today, largely matured technologies are available which allow efficient use of solar energy.

Last but not least: fossil fuels are becoming increasingly scarce and ever more expensive. At the same time, energy demand is continuously increasing, especially in the aspiring Asian nations. We can predict that this will have significant political, economical, and ecological consequences. Solar energy can be an efficient instrument to counteract this alarming development.
Over 95 % of today’s solar cells consist of the semiconductor material silicon. Semiconductors are materials whose electrical conductivity increases with the influx of light or heat.

For the production of solar cells, the silicon is doped. For this purpose, other chemical elements are added, either creating an electron surplus (n-conductive layer) or an electron deficit (p-conductive layer). If two differently doped semiconductor areas convene, a so-called space charge zone is created at the boundary layer (p-n transition).

In order to achieve the desired effect, the initial material is normally lightly p-doped and a thin surface layer heavily n-doped. This creates the space charge zone required for separating charge carriers.

The front contact is a metallic mesh, enabling the sunlight to penetrate the silicon between the contacts. Moreover, solar cells are coated with an anti-reflection layer, serving to protect the cell and to reduce energy loss resulting from reflection. This layer gives the solar cells their typical bluish black appearance.
As a home owner, you can take the opportunity to use your roof as a small power station – without any effort as all the work is done by the solar cells. Modules made by SOLAR SERDAR can be installed by several different means in various ways, making them extremely versatile.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

petak, 10. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR - WORLD SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DAYS

The World Sustainable Energy Days, the largest annual conference in this field in Europe, offer a unique combination of events on sustainable energy production and use, covering energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings, industry and transport.

Conferences - which presented the latest technology trends, outstanding examples and European strategies - and the "Energiesparmesse", an important energy exhibition, offer ideal opportunities to establish new partnerships. The conference makes an important contribution to awareness raising for green energy and energy efficiency.

Since 19 years, experts and decision makers from all over the world flock to Upper Austria to attend the events - in the last 12 years, the conference attracted more than 10,000 participants from 98 countries!
Pellets are a clean, CO2-neutral and convenient fuel with growing market shares worldwide. The European Pellet Conference in Wels/Austria aims to provide in-depth information on pellet technologies, innovation and market trends. It will also offer an exciting platform to discuss new co-operation projects.

With more than 600 participants every year, the European Pellet Conferences held in Wels have become the largest annual pellet event in the world.

The conference is organised by O.Ö. Energiesparverband, the regional energy agency of Upper Austria, dedicated to sustainable energy market development. Upper Austria is an ideal location for such a conference. The region is home to a number of Europe‘s leading biomass boiler producers, and pellet heating systems have become a standard solution. More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Call for papers & speakers
Take the opportunity and share your work, achievements and insights with the world-wide pellet community!

Call for papers
Call for projects for the ”International Pellet Business Forum“
Propose a speaker
Topics:

R&D and technology innovation in fuels, distribution, equipment
innovative products, solutions, services, financing, marketing and business models
strategies, policies, legislation, programmes to develop pellet markets
market reports from local, regional, national pellet markets
standardisation and quality issues
improvements in costs, performance and consumer satisfaction
sustainability aspects along the value chain
raw materials, pellet production technologies
pilot projects, information and training
The papers will be presented in oral or poster sessions, accepted and presented contributions will be published in the proceedings.

Deadline: 05 October 2010


How to participate?


Please submit your contributions for the ”Call for papers & projects“ by E-Mail to office@esv.or.at, for proposing speakers, please use the online form.

The conference "Energy Efficiency Watch: Building Renovation" will present how public policies will contribute to triggering a renovation boom, financing models and technology solutions. It will showcase innovative examples of energy-efficient, economic and sustainable renovations of domestic, public and commercial buildings and for social housing and outline approaches towards zero energy renovations.

The event is organised in the frame of the IEE-project Energy Efficiency Watch II.


Call for papers & speakers
Take the opportunity and share your work, achievements and insights with the world-wide community! The following possibilities are available:

call for papers
propose a speaker
Topics:

renovation strategies for domestic, public, commercial buildings & social housing
technology innovation
financial instruments
policies & programmes
minimum performance requirements
cost-optimal renovation levels
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans
sustainability & durability & affordability
zero energy renovation
policies and programmes
best practice examples from around the globe
training & skills
The papers will be presented in oral or poster sessions, accepted and presented contributions will be published in the proceedings.

Deadline: 05 October 2010


How to participate?

Please submit your contributions for the "call for papers" by E-Mail to office@esv.or.at, for proposing a speaker, please use the online form.

We look forward to receiving your contributions!
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

While solar heat for domestic and service applications has increasing market shares across Europe, solar process heat is still in its infancy. The potential is enormous: about 30% of the total industrial heat demand is at temperature levels below 100°C which can be provided from commercially available solar thermal collectors.

The aim of the first ”International Solar Process Heat Conference“ is to present the technology solutions, market reports and best practice examples and to discuss strategies how to increase the market for solar process heat globally.

The conference is held in the framework of the Intelligent Energy Europe project ”Solar Process Heat“, www.solar-process-heat.eu

The conference is organised by O.Ö. Energiesparverband, the regional energy agency of Upper Austria, dedicated to sustainable energy market development.
Upper Austria as a leading solar thermal region in the world (0.7 m² solar thermal installed per capita) is the ideal location for this conference.


Call for papers & speakers
Take the opportunity and share your work, achievements and insights with the world-wide solar thermal community! The following possibilities are available:

call for papers
propose a speaker

Topics:

R&D and technology innovation for solar process heat
best practice examples from around the globe
analyses of potentials, application sectors, economics of solar process heat
collector innovation for solar process heat
system designs, planning tools & approaches, integration into commercial and industrial energy systems
solar heat metering, guarantee of results, quality assurance, solar contracting
market reports on solar process heat from local, regional, national markets
innovative products, solutions, services, financing, marketing and business models
information, awareness raising, training
strategies and programmes to develop solar process heat markets

The papers will be presented in oral or poster sessions, accepted and presented contributions will be published in the proceedings.


Deadline: 5 October 2010


How to participate?


Please submit your contributions for the ”call for papers“ by E-Mail to office@esv.or.at, for proposing a speaker, please use the online form.


We look forward to receiving your contributions!
More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Leading exhibition and trade show on energy efficiency and renewable energy sources - more than 1,600 exhibitors and more than 100,000 visitors.



02 - 03 March: Professional Visitor Days

04 - 06 March: General Public Days

General Information:
Organizer and location
Messe Wels GmbH & Co KG
A-4600 Wels, Messeplatz 1
Tel.: +43(0)7242/9392-0
Fax: +43(0)7242/9392-66451
e-mail: office@messe-wels.at
internet: www.energiesparmesse.at

Opening times
Exhibition: 04 - 06 March 2011

Professional Visitors Days:
02 - 03 March 2011
From 9 a.m. - 6 p.m. each day

SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

utorak, 7. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR recommends SolarWorld

SolarWorld is the largest PV manufacturer in the U.S. and is currently building its network of installers across the country. Our modules are completely Made in the USA (98.6%) and lead the competition on energy production based on independent studies.
How a PV cell makes electricity

Under the sun, a photovoltaic cell acts as a photosensitive diode that instantaneously converts light – but not heat – into electricity.

Cell Layers

A top, phosphorus-diffused silicon layer carries free electrons – unanchored particles with negative charges. A thicker, borondoped bottom layer contains holes, or absences of electrons, that also can move reely. In effect, precise manufacturing has instilled an electronic imbalance between the two layers.

Sun Activation

Photons bombard and penetrate the cell.
They activate electrons, knocking them loose in both silicon layers.
Some electrons in the bottom layer sling-shot to the top of the cell.
These electrons flow into metal contacts as electricity, moving into a circuit throughout a 60-cell module.
Electrons flow back into the cell via a solid contact layer at the bottom, creating a closed loop or circuit.
SolarWorld manufacturers solar panels entirely in the USA from raw silicon to completed solar panels. This process involves four main steps: crystal growing, wafering, solar cell production and solar panel assembly. Learn about each of the four steps below.

Crystal growing
Wafering
Solar cell production
Solar panel assembly
SolarWorld heats and melts polysilicon rock until it forms a whitehot liquid, then re-fuses the molten silicon into a single giant crystal in which all atoms are perfectly aligned in a desired structure and orientation.

Charging

The magic starts with about 250 pounds of polysilicon rocks carefully stacked in a quartz crucible. The only other ingredient is a silicon disk impregnated with a tiny amount of boron. The addition of the oron dopant ensures that the resulting crystal will bear a positive potential electrical orientation. The crucible is encased within thick walls of insulating graphite and locked inside a cylindrical furnace.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.





Melting

As the crystal-growing furnace heats up to temperatures ranging around 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit, its silicon contents melt into a shimmering slurry. Once computerized monitors register the right temperature and atmospheric conditions, the alchemy begins. A silicon seed crystal, hung from a narrow cable attached to a rotary device atop the furnace, is slowly lowered into the melt.

Growing

The crucible starts to turn, and the seed crystal begins to rotate in the opposite direction. The silicon melt freezes onto the seed crystal, matching the seed’s crystalline structure. The crystal grows, the cable and seed slowly ascend, and the crystal elongates at a controlled width. As the growth depletes the silicon slurry, the crucible also rises.

Cooling

Flash forward about 2.5 days since the crucible was charged with polysilicon: After hours of cooling to about 300 degrees Fahrenheit, the furnace hood and shaft lift away from the crucible encasement, slowly swing to one side and reveal a completed cylindrical crystal, ready to move to the second step and next production room.
A silicon crystal must change shape several times before it winds up as the precisely calibrated wafers that form the foundations of photovoltaic cells.





Cutting

First, a saw cuts off the crystal’s so-called top and tail, so that a crystal of uniform width remains. Typically, wafering saws draw thin wire bearing a liquid abrasive across the crystal’s surface. (Below, a machine mounted with a giant donutlike steel blade does the cutting.) Wire saws also cut the crystal into ingots measuring 2 feet or less. Steel holders are mounted on the ends of these ingots for the next step.



Squaring

Mounted ingots are placed standing on end in a rack bearing 16 at a time inside another wireslicing machine. There, wire running in a lattice configuration descends on the ingots to shear off four rounded segments, leaving flat sides. The result: The ingots now have a square crosssection, except for still-rounded corners.

Slicing

The next wire saw is more intricate yet. A wire winding hundreds of times between two cylindrical drums forms a web of parallel, tightly spaced segments. As the wire unspools through the machine, ingots mounted sideways on glass and metal holders are pressed two at a time through the wire web, slicing them into the thickness of slim business cards. Each millimeter of crystal yields about 21/2 wafers. Detached from their holders, the wafers are loaded into carriers, or boats, for transport to the next step.
Converting wafers into cells

At this point, a wafer is no more capable of producing electricity than a sliver of river rock. The wafer is the main building block of a PV cell, but so far its only notable characteristics are its crystal structure and positive potential orientation. All of that changes in the third, multistep, cell-production phase of PV manufacturing.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

Etching

In the only phase requiring a designated clean room, a series of intricate chemical and heat treatments converts the blank, grey wafers into productive, blue cells. A so-called texture etch, for instance, removes a tiny layer of silicon, relying on the underlying crystal structure to reveal an irregular pattern of pyramids. The surface of pyramids – so small they’re invisible to the naked eye – absorbs more light.

Diffusing

Next, wafers are moved in cartridges into long, cylindrical, ovenlike chambers in which phosphorus is diffused into a thin layer of the wafer surface. The molecular-level impregnation occurs as the wafer surface is exposed to phosphorus gas at a high heat, a step that gives the surface a negative potential electrical orientation. The combination of that layer and the boron-doped layer below creates a positive-negative, or P/N, junction – a critical partition in the functioning of a PV cell.

Coloring and Printing

The burgeoning, still-grey cells move in trays into heavy vacuum chambers where blue-purple silicon nitride is deposited onto their tops. The coating with silicon nitride – yet another member of the silicon family of materials – is designed to reduce reflection even further in the energy-dense blue end of the light spectrum. It leaves the cells with their final, dark color. Now, the cells can optimally gather photons and produce electricity. They lack, however, any mechanism to collect and forward the power. So, in a series of silkscreen- like steps, metals are printed on both sides of the cell, adding pin-stripe "fingers" and bus-bar circuitry. A functioning cell is born – only sunshine needed.
Stringing cells into solar panels

Each phase of production depends on processes with flavors all their own. Careful control of heating and cooling dominates crystal growing. Wafering employs abrasion and cutting. Cell production concentrates on chemistry. Any factory process would be incomplete without a final assembly step, and in PV such a step is known as moduling.

Soldering

At SolarWorld, module manufacturing is a highly automated process, relying on robust steel robotics to undertake the increasingly heavy lifting of assembling lightweight PV cells into modules weighing around 45 pounds apiece. Each robotic tool works within a safety fence that, by design, excludes people. First, cells are soldered together into strings of 10, using an over-under-overunder pattern of metal connectors to link the cells. Six strings are laid out to form a rectangular matrix of 60 cells. Each matrix is laminated onto glass.

Framing

To become a module, however, each laminate requires not only a frame to provide protection against weather and other impacts but also a junction box to enable connections among modules or with an inverter-bound conduit. Robots affix those, too.

Inspection and Shipping

Careful cleaning and inspection provide final touches before each module can be palletized for delivery to homes and businesses.


We seek both seasoned solar installers as well as new contractors interested in entering the market. If customer service, quality installation, and partnering with the best are key to your business strategy, then we want to hear from you.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

As more and more states adopt solar incentives the U.S. solar market is rapidly expanding beyond California. Companies that enter now will be well positioned to grow as the U.S. solar market expands over the next 5 years.
Sunkits® solar electric systems
Sunkits makes it simple for you. SolarWorld custom designs each Sunkits system for your customers needs and provides you with a detailed proposal.
Training
Receive the training that you need to get you solar business started or to take you company to the next level.

Marketing materials
Save money on producing your own materials with SolarWorld brochures, data sheets and more.

Sales leads
Grow your business with additional leads direct from SolarWorld.

SolarWorld exclusive financing
Offer your customers a variety of options to pay for their solar array.

SolarWorld Authorized Installer Logo
Gain credibility by using the SolarWorld Authorized Installer logo on your web site and marketing materials.

Co-marketing
Receive additional marketing support as you grow your business.
SolarWorld is seeeking both experienced solar installers as well as other companies interested in getting into solar, such as electrical and HVAC companies.

Basic knowledge of solar PV
Required licensing and insurance per your region
Professional customer service
Becoming a SolarWorld installer is easy. Simply follow these steps to get started:

Step 1: Complete the online inquiry form.

Step 2: Attend the Sunkits® webinar.

Step 3: Complete formal registration form.

Step 4: For installers new to solar PV, attend a local hands on training.

Step 5: Start installing!

Straightforward security
Because SolarWorld produces the highest quality, we can guarantee the best performance. That's why SolarWorld is the first solar company to offer a 25-year linear performance guarantee* for all modules installed after January 1, 2010.
SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com

ponedjeljak, 6. rujna 2010.

SOLAR SERDAR recommends CONERGY USA

SOLAR SERDAR recommends CONERGY USA
Conergy is one of the world’s largest solar energy companies and offers a broad range of products for on-grid and off-grid applications. We work with a select group of manufacturers and our own team of over 300 product engineers and product support specialists to continuously drive innovative design in each of our major product areas.

Solar-power installations on private homes and businesses, as well as the world's largest solar plants worldwide, are producing clean energy with Conergy components. Conergy offers solutions for both off-grid and grid-connected installations. In homes where the connection to the public electricity grid would be too costly or complicated, a photovoltaic installation can be your first choice because of its quiet and nearly maintenance-free operation.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

The modules, electrical components, and mounting systems we offer are specifically designed to meet the requirements of the market and are available exclusively from professional wholesalers specializing in renewable energy.
Solar energy systems reduce up to 100% your electricity costs, depending on system size. Utility prices are only going up every year. Solar energy provides you security from rising electricity rates.

A solar electric system adds value to any home or building and pays for itself for years to come. And, your solar system adds value without increasing your property taxes.
Solar is an environmentally responsible technology. Unlike fossil fuels, it does not emit pollutants which create harm to people and the environment.
The current state and federal incentives for solar can save up to 80% of your system cost. State rebates can drop every six months, so make your reservation now!
It is a proven technology with panels that are backed by a 25-year manufacturer warranty
Is Solar Right For Me?

Solar is right for most every home, depending on your motivation. Are you interested in solar purely for economic benefit? Are you concerned for our environment or the social responsibility of your business? Are you concerned for our environment or the future health of your family? Are you bothered by the fossil fuel situation and wish to declare your energy independence? All of these are great reasons to go solar! Below are a few limiting factors to getting the most out of your solar electric system:

Do you have a south-facing area of roof or land that can accommodate your solar system?
A south facing roof is going to provide the optimum potential for your system. Depending on your building orientation, other directions can also provide sufficient production; please consult us for these details.
Do you have unobstructed space available for your system?
Each kilowatt (kW) of solar contracted will cover approximately 100-150 sq. ft. of area. This can be a roof, parking structure, ground area, etc. If you do not have ample, unshaded, structurally sound area for solar, then your property may not be well-suited for solar.
Do you have any daytime shading issues on your south-facing space?
Trees, neighbors with larger buildings, vents, or other factor that cause shading throughout the day will cause significant decreases to your power production, therefore not making a suitable building for solar.
Will you need to repair or replace your roof in the next 5 years?
If so, then you may want to wait to add your solar system during that time, or consider re-roofing now to add your system.
Toll-free: 888-396-6611
Fax: 505-473-3830
Email: info@conergy.us
Headquarters:
2480 West 26th Avenue, Suite 2-B
Denver, CO 80211

Distribution Sales Group:
2480 West 26th Avenue, Suite 2-B
Denver, CO 80211

2000 Randolph Road SE, Suite 105
Albuquerque, NM 87106
Projects Group:
101 Lindenwood Drive, Suite 130
Malvern, PA 19355

3550 Watt Avenue, Suite 140 #4
Sacramento, CA 95821

SOLAR SERDAR
solarserdar@gmail.com